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British Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig wrote in his diary, "My officers and I were aware that such weapons would cause harm to women and children living in nearby towns, as strong winds were common in the battlefront.

However, because the weapon was to be directed against the enemy, none of us were overly concerned at all. The war damaged chemistry's prestige in European societies, in particular the German variety.

The ethnic cleansing of the Ottoman Empire's Armenian population, including mass deportations and executions, during the final years of the Ottoman Empire is considered genocide.

The Armenians were intentionally marched to death and a number were attacked by Ottoman brigands. Other ethnic groups were similarly attacked by the Ottoman Empire during this period, including Assyrians and Greeks , and some scholars consider those events to be part of the same policy of extermination.

The German invaders treated any resistance—such as sabotaging rail lines—as illegal and immoral, and shot the offenders and burned buildings in retaliation.

In addition, they tended to suspect that most civilians were potential francs-tireurs guerrillas and, accordingly, took and sometimes killed hostages from among the civilian population.

The German army executed over 6, French and Belgian civilians between August and November , usually in near-random large-scale shootings of civilians ordered by junior German officers.

The German Army destroyed 15,—20, buildings—most famously the university library at Louvain —and generated a wave of refugees of over a million people.

Over half the German regiments in Belgium were involved in major incidents. British propaganda dramatising the Rape of Belgium attracted much attention in the United States, while Berlin said it was both lawful and necessary because of the threat of franc-tireurs like those in France in The British soldiers of the war were initially volunteers but increasingly were conscripted into service.

Surviving veterans, returning home, often found they could discuss their experiences only amongst themselves.

Grouping together, they formed "veterans' associations" or "Legions". A small number of personal accounts of American veterans have been collected by the Library of Congress Veterans History Project.

About eight million men surrendered and were held in POW camps during the war. All nations pledged to follow the Hague Conventions on fair treatment of prisoners of war , and the survival rate for POWs was generally much higher than that of combatants at the front.

At the siege of Maubeuge about 40, French soldiers surrendered, at the battle of Galicia Russians took about , to , Austrian captives, at the Brusilov Offensive about , to , Germans and Austrians surrendered to Russians, and at the Battle of Tannenberg 92, Russians surrendered.

When the besieged garrison of Kaunas surrendered in , some 20, Russians became prisoners, at the battle near Przasnysz February—March 14, Germans surrendered to Russians, and at the First Battle of the Marne about 12, Germans surrendered to the Allies.

Prisoners from the Allied armies totalled about 1. From the Central Powers about 3. Most were captured just before the Armistice.

The United States held 48, The most dangerous moment was the act of surrender, when helpless soldiers were sometimes gunned down.

A survivor said: "We were driven along like beasts; to drop out was to die. In Russia, when the prisoners from the Czech Legion of the Austro-Hungarian army were released in , they re-armed themselves and briefly became a military and diplomatic force during the Russian Civil War.

While the Allied prisoners of the Central Powers were quickly sent home at the end of active hostilities, the same treatment was not granted to Central Power prisoners of the Allies and Russia, many of whom served as forced labour , e.

Military and civilian observers from every major power closely followed the course of the war. Many were able to report on events from a perspective somewhat akin to modern " embedded " positions within the opposing land and naval forces.

In the Middle East, Arab nationalism soared in Ottoman territories in response to the rise of Turkish nationalism during the war, with Arab nationalist leaders advocating the creation of a pan-Arab state.

In , the Arab Revolt began in Ottoman-controlled territories of the Middle East in an effort to achieve independence.

Lawrence forged the Iyasu photo. A number of socialist parties initially supported the war when it began in August Italian nationalism was stirred by the outbreak of the war and was initially strongly supported by a variety of political factions.

One of the most prominent and popular Italian nationalist supporters of the war was Gabriele d'Annunzio , who promoted Italian irredentism and helped sway the Italian public to support intervention in the war.

Once war was declared, many socialists and trade unions backed their governments. In stark contrast to his predecessor , [] five days after his election he spoke of his determination to do what he could to bring peace.

Benedict XV found his abilities and unique position as a religious emissary of peace ignored by the belligerent powers. The Treaty of London between Italy and the Triple Entente included secret provisions whereby the Allies agreed with Italy to ignore papal peace moves towards the Central Powers.

Consequently, the publication of Benedict's proposed seven-point Peace Note of August was roundly ignored by all parties except Austria-Hungary.

Head of the British Army, Lord Kitchener , was to review the cadets , but the imminence of the war prevented him.

General Horace Smith-Dorrien was sent instead. He surprised the two-or-three thousand cadets by declaring in the words of Donald Christopher Smith, a Bermudian cadet who was present ,.

In our ignorance I, and many of us, felt almost ashamed of a British General who uttered such depressing and unpatriotic sentiments, but during the next four years, those of us who survived the holocaust—probably not more than one-quarter of us—learned how right the General's prognosis was and how courageous he had been to utter it.

Many countries jailed those who spoke out against the conflict. In the US, the Espionage Act of and Sedition Act of made it a federal crime to oppose military recruitment or make any statements deemed "disloyal".

Publications at all critical of the government were removed from circulation by postal censors, [] and many served long prison sentences for statements of fact deemed unpatriotic.

A number of nationalists opposed intervention, particularly within states that the nationalists were hostile to. Although the vast majority of Irish people consented to participate in the war in and , a minority of advanced Irish nationalists staunchly opposed taking part.

Irish nationalists and Marxists attempted to pursue Irish independence, culminating in the Easter Rising of , with Germany sending 20, rifles to Ireland to stir unrest in Britain.

Other opposition came from conscientious objectors —some socialist, some religious—who refused to fight. In Britain, 16, people asked for conscientious objector status.

Even after the war, in Britain many job advertisements were marked "No conscientious objectors need apply".

The Central Asian Revolt started in the summer of , when the Russian Empire government ended its exemption of Muslims from military service.

In , a series of French Army Mutinies led to dozens of soldiers being executed and many more imprisoned. On 1—4 May , about , workers and soldiers of Petrograd , and after them, the workers and soldiers of other Russian cities, led by the Bolsheviks, demonstrated under banners reading "Down with the war!

Almost 50 people including three Italian soldiers were killed and over people arrested. In September , Russian soldiers in France began questioning why they were fighting for the French at all and mutinied.

The German Revolution of — led to the abdication of the Kaiser and German surrender. Conscription was common in most European countries.

However, it was controversial in English-speaking countries. It was especially unpopular among minority ethnic groups—especially the Irish Catholics in Ireland and Australia, [] and the French Catholics in Canada.

In Canada the issue produced a major political crisis that permanently alienated the Francophones. It opened a political gap between French Canadians , who believed their true loyalty was to Canada and not to the British Empire, and members of the Anglophone majority, who saw the war as a duty to their British heritage.

Australia had a form of conscription at the outbreak of the war, as compulsory military training had been introduced in However, the Defence Act provided that unexempted males could be called upon only for home defence during times of war, not overseas service.

Prime Minister Billy Hughes wished to amend the legislation to require conscripts to serve overseas, and held two non-binding referendums — one in and one in — in order to secure public support.

Hughes and his supporters were expelled from the party, forming the National Labor Party and then the Nationalist Party. Despite the referendum results, the Nationalists won a landslide victory at the federal election.

In Britain, conscription resulted in the calling up of nearly every physically fit man in Britain—six of ten million eligible.

Of these, about , lost their lives. Most deaths were those of young unmarried men; however, , wives lost husbands and , children lost fathers.

The act specified that single men aged 18 to 40 years old were liable to be called up for military service unless they were widowed with children or ministers of a religion.

There was a system of Military Service Tribunals to adjudicate upon claims for exemption upon the grounds of performing civilian work of national importance, domestic hardship, health, and conscientious objection.

The law went through several changes before the war ended. Married men were exempt in the original Act, although this was changed in June The age limit was also eventually raised to 51 years old.

Recognition of work of national importance also diminished, and in the last year of the war there was some support for the conscription of clergy.

Due to the political situation in Ireland, conscription was never applied there; only in England , Scotland and Wales. In the United States, conscription began in and was generally well received, with a few pockets of opposition in isolated rural areas.

The draft was universal and included blacks on the same terms as whites, although they served in different units. Forms of resistance ranged from peaceful protest to violent demonstrations and from humble letter-writing campaigns asking for mercy to radical newspapers demanding reform.

The most common tactics were dodging and desertion, and many communities sheltered and defended their draft dodgers as political heroes.

Many socialists were jailed for "obstructing the recruitment or enlistment service". The most famous was Eugene Debs, head of the Socialist Party of America, who ran for president in from his prison cell.

In a number of radicals and anarchists challenged the new draft law in federal court, arguing that it was a direct violation of the Thirteenth Amendment's prohibition against slavery and involuntary servitude.

Like all the armies of mainland Europe, Austria-Hungary relied on conscription to fill its ranks. Officer recruitment, however, was voluntary. This was much resented.

The army has been described as being "run on colonial lines" and the Slav soldiers as "disaffected". Thus conscription contributed greatly to Austria's disastrous performance on the battlefield.

The non-military diplomatic and propaganda interactions among the nations were designed to build support for the cause, or to undermine support for the enemy.

For the most part, wartime diplomacy focused on five issues: propaganda campaigns ; defining and redefining the war goals, which became harsher as the war went on; luring neutral nations Italy, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, Romania into the coalition by offering slices of enemy territory; and encouragement by the Allies of nationalistic minority movements inside the Central Powers, especially among Czechs, Poles, and Arabs.

In addition, there were multiple peace proposals coming from neutrals, or one side or the other; none of them progressed very far.

The War was an unprecedented triumph for natural science. This triumph paved the way to other triumphs: improvements in transport, in sanitation, in surgery, medicine, and psychiatry, in commerce and industry, and, above all, in preparations for the next war.

The first tentative efforts to comprehend the meaning and consequences of modern warfare began during the initial phases of the war, and this process continued throughout and after the end of hostilities, and is still underway, more than a century later.

Historian Heather Jones argues that the historiography has been reinvigorated by the cultural turn in recent years.

Scholars have raised entirely new questions regarding military occupation, radicalisation of politics, race, and the male body.

Furthermore, new research has revised our understanding of five major topics that historians have long debated: Why the war began, why the Allies won, whether generals were responsible for high casualty rates, how the soldiers endured the horrors of trench warfare, and to what extent the civilian homefront accepted and endorsed the war effort.

Memorials were erected in thousands of villages and towns. Many of these graveyards also have central monuments to the missing or unidentified dead, such as the Menin Gate memorial and the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme.

The UK Government has budgeted substantial resources to the commemoration of the war during the period to The lead body is the Imperial War Museum.

World War I had a lasting impact on social memory. It was seen by many in Britain as signalling the end of an era of stability stretching back to the Victorian period , and across Europe many regarded it as a watershed.

A generation of innocent young men, their heads full of high abstractions like Honour, Glory and England, went off to war to make the world safe for democracy.

They were slaughtered in stupid battles planned by stupid generals. Those who survived were shocked, disillusioned and embittered by their war experiences, and saw that their real enemies were not the Germans, but the old men at home who had lied to them.

They rejected the values of the society that had sent them to war, and in doing so separated their own generation from the past and from their cultural inheritance.

This has become the most common perception of World War I, perpetuated by the art, cinema, poems, and stories published subsequently.

These beliefs did not become widely shared because they offered the only accurate interpretation of wartime events. In every respect, the war was much more complicated than they suggest.

It has been pointed out that, although the losses were devastating, their greatest impact was socially and geographically limited.

The many emotions other than horror experienced by soldiers in and out of the front line, including comradeship, boredom, and even enjoyment, have been recognised.

The war is not now seen as a 'fight about nothing', but as a war of ideals, a struggle between aggressive militarism and more or less liberal democracy.

It has been acknowledged that British generals were often capable men facing difficult challenges, and that it was under their command that the British army played a major part in the defeat of the Germans in a great forgotten victory.

Though these views have been discounted as "myths", [] [] they are common. They have dynamically changed according to contemporary influences, reflecting in the s perceptions of the war as "aimless" following the contrasting Second World War and emphasising conflict within the ranks during times of class conflict in the s.

The majority of additions to the contrary are often rejected. The social trauma caused by unprecedented rates of casualties manifested itself in different ways, which have been the subject of subsequent historical debate.

Though many participants did not share in the experiences of combat or spend any significant time at the front, or had positive memories of their service, the images of suffering and trauma became the widely shared perception.

Such historians as Dan Todman, Paul Fussell , and Samuel Heyns have all published works since the s arguing that these common perceptions of the war are factually incorrect.

The rise of Nazism and fascism included a revival of the nationalist spirit and a rejection of many post-war changes. This conspiracy theory of betrayal became common, and the German populace came to see themselves as victims.

The widespread acceptance of the "stab-in-the-back" theory delegitimised the Weimar government and destabilised the system, opening it to extremes of right and left.

Communist and fascist movements around Europe drew strength from this theory and enjoyed a new level of popularity. These feelings were most pronounced in areas directly or harshly affected by the war.

Adolf Hitler was able to gain popularity by using German discontent with the still controversial Treaty of Versailles.

The 'Age of Totalitarianism' included nearly all the infamous examples of genocide in modern history, headed by the Jewish Holocaust, but also comprising the mass murders and purges of the Communist world, other mass killings carried out by Nazi Germany and its allies, and also the Armenian Genocide of One of the most dramatic effects of the war was the expansion of governmental powers and responsibilities in Britain, France, the United States, and the Dominions of the British Empire.

To harness all the power of their societies, governments created new ministries and powers. New taxes were levied and laws enacted, all designed to bolster the war effort ; many have lasted to this day.

Similarly, the war strained the abilities of some formerly large and bureaucratised governments, such as in Austria-Hungary and Germany.

In Austria, for example, most pigs were slaughtered, so at war's end there was no meat. To pay for purchases in the United States, Britain cashed in its extensive investments in American railroads and then began borrowing heavily from Wall Street.

President Wilson was on the verge of cutting off the loans in late , but allowed a great increase in US government lending to the Allies.

After , the US demanded repayment of these loans. The repayments were, in part, funded by German reparations that, in turn, were supported by American loans to Germany.

This circular system collapsed in and some loans were never repaid. Macro- and micro-economic consequences devolved from the war.

Families were altered by the departure of many men. With the death or absence of the primary wage earner, women were forced into the workforce in unprecedented numbers.

At the same time, industry needed to replace the lost labourers sent to war. This aided the struggle for voting rights for women.

World War I further compounded the gender imbalance, adding to the phenomenon of surplus women. The deaths of nearly one million men during the war in Britain increased the gender gap by almost a million: from , to 1,, The number of unmarried women seeking economic means grew dramatically.

In addition, demobilisation and economic decline following the war caused high unemployment. The war increased female employment; however, the return of demobilised men displaced many from the workforce, as did the closure of many of the wartime factories.

In Britain, rationing was finally imposed in early , limited to meat, sugar, and fats butter and margarine , but not bread. The new system worked smoothly.

From to , trade union membership doubled, from a little over four million to a little over eight million. Britain turned to her colonies for help in obtaining essential war materials whose supply from traditional sources had become difficult.

Geologists such as Albert Ernest Kitson were called on to find new resources of precious minerals in the African colonies. Kitson discovered important new deposits of manganese , used in munitions production, in the Gold Coast.

Article of the Treaty of Versailles the so-called "war guilt" clause stated Germany accepted responsibility for "all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.

However neither of them interpreted it as an admission of war guilt. However, "Allied experts knew that Germany could not pay" this sum.

The total sum was divided into three categories, with the third being "deliberately designed to be chimerical" and its "primary function was to mislead public opinion This figure could be paid in cash or in kind coal, timber, chemical dyes, etc.

In addition, some of the territory lost—via the treaty of Versailles—was credited towards the reparation figure as were other acts such as helping to restore the Library of Louvain.

David Andelman notes "refusing to pay doesn't make an agreement null and void. The bonds, the agreement, still exist.

The war contributed to the evolution of the wristwatch from women's jewellery to a practical everyday item, replacing the pocketwatch , which requires a free hand to operate.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. III biplane fighters near Douai , France, Peace treaties. Formation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies and territories, Partitioning the former Ottoman Empire , Austria-Hungary and the Russian Empire , transfer of territories to other countries.

British Empire. Theatres of World War I. Main article: Causes of World War I. Main article: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Further information: Diplomatic history of World War I.

Main article: African theatre of World War I. Main article: Naval warfare of World War I. See also: Albania during World War I.

Main article: Romania during World War I. Main article: Russian Revolution. Main article: Czechoslovak Legion. Main article: Sinai and Palestine Campaign.

Main article: American entry into World War I. Main article: Spring Offensive. Main article: Armistice of 11 November Main article: Aftermath of World War I.

Further information: Sykes—Picot Agreement. See also: Tanks in World War I. Main article: Aviation in World War I. Main article: Baralong incidents.

See also: Unrestricted submarine warfare. Main article: Blockade of Germany. Main article: Chemical weapons in World War I. Main article: Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire.

See also: Urkun. Main article: Rape of Belgium. Main article: World War I prisoners of war in Germany. Main article: Conscription Crisis of Main article: Conscription in Australia.

Main article: Conscription in the United Kingdom. Main article: Diplomatic history of World War I. Collingwood , writing in Main article: World War I memorials.

Further information: World War I in popular culture. The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United Kingdom and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject.

You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new section, as appropriate.

June Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Economic history of World War I. World War I portal War portal. The Bolshevik government signed the separate peace with the Central Powers shortly after their armed seizure of power of November It joined the war on the side of the Central Powers on 29 October Retrieved 13 December Darkest Hours.

BBC News. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 12 May American Journal of Epidemiology. Retrieved 10 September Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses.

The Diplomatic Background of the War. Yale University Press. Retrieved 26 August Davignon, Minister of Foreign Affairs". Forgotten Victory. Ask History.

Retrieved 24 October Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 15 December Guide to Canadian English Usage. Oxford UP, , p. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society.

Manchester University Press. The Origins of the World War. The Journal of Conflict Resolution. London: Allen Lane. The last courts of Europe.

Retrieved 26 December Month of Madness. BBC Radio 4. East European Monographs. American Universities Field Staff. Retrieved 7 December Austrian-Greek encounters over the centuries: history, diplomacy, politics, arts, economics.

Retrieved 1 September Zenith Imprint. Turner, "The Russian Mobilization in Reichs-gesetzblatt in German. Kaiser's spy in north".

The Irish News. Ireland in the 20th Century. London: Random Houe. Random House. Retrieved 9 February War in History. National Geographic. Archived from the original on 31 August Retrieved 5 August The Price of Glory ed.

Allen Lane. Memorial Gates Trust. Retrieved 12 December British administration and the Amritsar massacre. Mittal Publications.

Retrieved 5 July The Independent. Retrieved 23 July Trench Warfare. Archived from the original on 20 April Retrieved 19 April American College of Physicians.

Retrieved 28 September The Diplomat. Retrieved 28 April Naval History. World Wars in Depth. Retrieved 11 November Retrieved 12 March A world at total war: global conflict and the politics of destruction, — Publications of the German Historical Institute.

Library of Congress Country Studies. Indiana University Press. Retrieved 27 September The Middle East and Islamic world reader 4th ed. New York: Grove Press.

Minneapolis, Minn. The Holocaust and Genocides in Europe. New York: Continuum Publishing Corporation. Exisle Publishing.

Sukru Princeton University Press. Italy and the world war. London: Faber and Faber. History of Dalmatia. Oxford, England; New York: Berg.

History of Transylvania. Cambridge University Press. Deutsche Welle. London: Macmillan. Yle Uutiset. Hunzeker 11 November Washington Post.

Briscoe Military Operations. Maps compiled by A. London: HM Stationery Office. In Sheppard, Eric William ed. A Short History of the British Army 4th ed.

First World War. Archived from the original on 14 June Retrieved 13 May London: John Murray. Woodrow Wilson: A Biography , p.

Archived from the original on 7 May Retrieved 27 July London: COnway. Archived from the original on 4 June Retrieved 29 October Catharines, ON: Vanwell.

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Kieler Erinnerungsorte. League of Nations Photo Archive. Retrieved 20 November Retrieved 21 November Trento e Trieste.

Archived from the original PDF on 2 October Archived from the original on 27 August The First World War, — Berkeley: University of California Press.

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Did you find the story interesting? Stir in the garlic and ginger and cook for 1 minute, then add the curry powder and turmeric and stir to combine.

Pour in the coconut milk drink and ml water. Bring to a simmer, then cover, reduce the heat to low and cook for 20 minutes or until the carrots are soft.

Blitz to a sauce using a hand-held stick blender or food processor. Season to taste and set aside. While the sauce is cooking, preheat the oven to degrees, and line a baking tray with baking paper.

Put the flour on a plate and season well. Put the egg and breadcrumbs on separate plates. Dust each fish fillet in the flour, then dip in the egg and coat in the crumbs.

Arrange the fish on the prepared baking tray then mist with cooking spray. Bake for 18 minutes until the fish is cooked through and the breadcrumbs are golden.

To make the shredded salad, toss together all the salad ingredients in a large bowl until well combined. Spoon the curry sauce onto the plates, then top with the crumbled fish fillets.

Serve with the rice and salad on the side. Drain, reserving 60ml of the pasta cooking water. Add the garlic and chilli flakes, then cook, stirring constantly, for 1 minute.

Add the anchovies and cook for 1 minute, stirring frequently, until the anchovies soften. Add the pasta and broccoli to the pan, season well and toss together.

Cook for minutes, adding the reserved cooking liquid if the mixture seems a little dry. Divide the pasta between plates, then scatter over the shaved Parmesan and extra chilli flakes to serve.

Reduce the heat and simmer for 15 minutes, until just tender. Drain and return to the pan, then add the soured cream and low-fat spread.

Season to taste and mash until smooth. Meanwhile, heat 2 tsp of the oil in a large frying pan over a medium heat. Add the carrots, celery and onion and cook, stirring, for minutes until softened.

Stir in the corn and garlic and cook, stirring constantly, for 1 minute. Transfer to a bowl and set aside. Heat the remaining oil in the pan and cook the turkey for 5 minutes, breaking up any lumps with a wooden spoon, until browned.

Stir in the tomato puree, rosemary and thyme, then season and cook for 2 minutes. Return the carrot mixture to the pan, stir in the flour and chicken stock and cook for 2 minutes, stirring, until thickened.

Preheat the oven to degrees and mist a 20cm x 30cm baking dish with cooking spray. Spoon the turkey mince into the prepared baking dish then spread over the mashed potatoes.

Bake for minutes until the filling is bubbling and the potato topping is golden. Mist a 23cm springform cake tin with cooking spray and dust the base and sides with 1 tbsp of the cocoa powder.

Put the chocolate and butter in a microwave-safe bowl. Cover and microwave on high for 1 minute until melted. Stir until combined, then set aside to cool.

Set aside. Put the egg yolks and 65g of the granulated sugar in a medium bowl. Beat using a hand-held electric whisk until pale and creamy. Add the chocolate mixture and vanilla extract, then beat until smooth.

In a separate bowl, whisk together the egg whites and salt until soft peaks form. Gradually add the remaining granulated sugar, 2 tbsp at a time, until combined, then beat for a final 2 minutes until you have a thick, glossy meringue.

Gently fold one-third of the meringue into the chocolate and almond mixture. Repeat with the remaining meringue until combined.

Transfer to the prepared cake tin and smooth the surface with a spatula. Bake for 40 minutes until a skewer inserted into the centre of the cake comes out clean.

Allow the cake to cool completely in the tin — this will take approximately 1 hour. Gently release the cake from the tin, transfer to a cake stand and dust over the icing sugar.

Serve with the fresh raspberries scattered over the top. Mist 4 x ml ramekins with the cooking spray to coat. Put the sugar in a mixing bowl and sift in the flour and cocoa powder.

Make a well in the centre, then beat in the eggs, milk and oil to make a smooth batter. Spoon the batter between the ramekins and bake for 12 minutes, until risen and just firm.

Sprinkle over the white chocolate and serve. Working quickly, put 2 x 50ml scoops low-calorie salted caramel ice cream WW used Oppo into small dessert glasses or bowls, then pour over the almond flavoured coffee and serve immediately with 2 sugar-free ice cream wafers WW used Tesco on the side of each.

Beat in the sugar, lime juice, vanilla and half the lime zest. Refrigerate for hours to firm up. Spoon the mixture into the mini tart cases, scatter over the remaining lime zest and top with the flaked almonds.

Put the coconut flakes on a foil-lined baking sheet and bake for minutes or until golden, then remove from the oven and set aside to cool slightly.

Finely chop half the coconut flakes, reserving the rest for serving, and add to a large pan. Add the rice, milk, sugar, zest, cinnamon, nutmeg and vanilla extract to the pan, and stir to combine.

Simmer for minutes, stirring occasionally at the beginning and more often as the rice swells, until the rice is tender and the consistency is creamy.

Divide the rice pudding between 6 small dessert dishes or glasses, scatter over the reserved toasted coconut flakes and dust with the extra cinnamon.

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When Germany expanded its standing army by , men in , France extended compulsory military service from two to three years; similar measures taken by the Balkan powers and Italy led to increased expenditure by the Ottomans and Austria-Hungary.

Absolute figures are hard to calculate, due to differences in categorising expenditure, while they often omit civilian infrastructure projects with a military use, such as railways.

In October , Austria-Hungary precipitated the Bosnian crisis of — by officially annexing the former Ottoman territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina , which it had occupied since The Balkans came to be known as the " powder keg of Europe ".

The resulting Treaty of London further shrank the Ottoman Empire, creating an independent Albanian state while enlarging the territorial holdings of Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro , and Greece.

The political objective of the assassination was to break off Austria-Hungary's South Slav provinces, which Austria-Hungary had annexed from the Ottoman Empire, so they could be combined into a Yugoslavia.

Some nearby were injured by the blast, but Ferdinand's convoy carried on. The other assassins failed to act as the cars drove past them.

About an hour later, when Ferdinand was returning from a visit at the Sarajevo Hospital with those wounded in the assassination attempt, the convoy took a wrong turn into a street where, by coincidence, Princip stood.

With a pistol, Princip shot and killed Ferdinand and his wife Sophie. Although they were reportedly not personally close, the Emperor Franz Joseph was profoundly shocked and upset.

The reaction among the people in Austria, however, was mild, almost indifferent. On Sunday and Monday 28 and 29 June , the crowds in Vienna listened to music and drank wine, as if nothing had happened.

The Austro-Hungarian authorities encouraged the subsequent anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo , in which Bosnian Croats and Bosniaks killed two Bosnian Serbs and damaged numerous Serb-owned buildings.

Austro-Hungarian authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina imprisoned and extradited approximately 5, prominent Serbs, to 2, of whom died in prison.

A further Serbs were sentenced to death. A predominantly Bosniak special militia known as the Schutzkorps was established and carried out the persecution of Serbs.

Austria-Hungary correctly believed that Serbian officials especially the officers of the Black Hand were involved in the plot to murder the Archduke, and wanted to finally end Serbian interference in Bosnia.

Serbia accepted all the terms of the ultimatum except for article six, which demanded that Austrian delegates be allowed in Serbia for the purpose of participation in the investigation into the assassination.

Finally, on 28 July , a month after the assassination, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. German Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg waited until the 31st for an appropriate response, when Germany declared Erklärung des Kriegszustandes , or "Statement on the war status".

When he refused, Germany issued an ultimatum demanding its mobilisation be stopped, and a commitment not to support Serbia.

Another was sent to France, asking her not to support Russia if it were to come to the defence of Serbia. The German government issued demands to France that it remain neutral whilst they decided which deployment plan to implement, it being extremely difficult to change the deployment once it was underway.

Germany responded by mobilising its own reserves and implementing Aufmarsch II West. The British cabinet decided on 29 July that being a signatory to the treaty about Belgium did not oblige it to oppose a German invasion of Belgium with military force.

Yet Wilhelm insisted that the German army should not march into Luxembourg until he received a telegram sent by his cousin George V , who made it clear that there had been a misunderstanding.

Eventually the Kaiser told Moltke, "Now you can do what you want. For years, the French had been aware of intelligence indicating that Germany planned to attack France through Belgium.

General Joseph Joffre , chief of staff of the French military from , inquired about the possibility of moving some French troops into Belgium to preempt such a move by Germany, but France's civilian leadership rejected this idea.

Joffre was told that France would not be the first power to violate Belgian neutrality and that any French move into Belgium could come only after the Germans had already invaded.

The strategy of the Central Powers suffered from miscommunication. Germany had promised to support Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia, but interpretations of what this meant differed.

Previously tested deployment plans had been replaced early in , but those had never been tested in exercises.

Austro-Hungarian leaders believed Germany would cover its northern flank against Russia. This confusion forced the Austro-Hungarian Army to divide its forces between the Russian and Serbian fronts.

Over the next two weeks, Austrian attacks were thrown back with heavy losses, which marked the first major Allied victories of the war and dashed Austro-Hungarian hopes of a swift victory.

As a result, Austria had to keep sizeable forces on the Serbian front, weakening its efforts against Russia.

The plan was to quickly knock France out of the war, then redeploy to the East and do the same to Russia.

Schlieffen deliberately kept the German left i. Consequently, as the German Army increased in size in the years leading up to the war, he changed the allocation of forces between the German right and left wings from to Ultimately, Moltke's changes meant insufficient forces to achieve decisive success and thus unrealistic goals and timings.

The initial German advance in the West was very successful: by the end of August the Allied left, which included the British Expeditionary Force BEF , was in full retreat ; French casualties in the first month exceeded ,, including 27, killed on 22 August during the Battle of the Frontiers.

In , the Russian Stavka had agreed with the French to attack Germany within 15 days of mobilisation; this was unrealistic and the two Russian armies that entered East Prussia on 17 August did so without many of their support elements.

By the end of , German troops held strong defensive positions inside France, controlled the bulk of France's domestic coalfields and had inflicted , more casualties than it lost itself.

However, communications problems and questionable command decisions cost Germany the chance of a decisive outcome, and it had failed to achieve the primary objective of avoiding a long, two-front war.

It will go on for a long time but lost it is already. Some of the first clashes of the war involved British, French, and German colonial forces in Africa.

On 10 August, German forces in South-West Africa attacked South Africa; sporadic and fierce fighting continued for the rest of the war.

Germany attempted to use Indian nationalism and pan-Islamism to its advantage, instigating uprisings in India , and sending a mission that urged Afghanistan to join the war on the side of Central Powers.

However, contrary to British fears of a revolt in India, the outbreak of the war saw an unprecedented outpouring of loyalty and goodwill towards Britain.

Gandhi and others. Military tactics developed before World War I failed to keep pace with advances in technology and had become obsolete.

These advances had allowed the creation of strong defensive systems, which out-of-date military tactics could not break through for most of the war.

Barbed wire was a significant hindrance to massed infantry advances, while artillery , vastly more lethal than in the s, coupled with machine guns , made crossing open ground extremely difficult.

In time, however, technology began to produce new offensive weapons, such as gas warfare and the tank. After the First Battle of the Marne 5—12 September , Allied and German forces unsuccessfully tried to outflank each other, a series of manoeuvres later known as the " Race to the Sea ".

By the end of , the opposing forces were left confronting each other along an uninterrupted line of entrenched positions from Alsace to Belgium's North Sea coast.

Both sides tried to break the stalemate using scientific and technological advances. Several types of gas soon became widely used by both sides, and though it never proved a decisive, battle-winning weapon, poison gas became one of the most-feared and best-remembered horrors of the war.

However, their effectiveness would grow as the war progressed; the Allies built tanks in large numbers, whilst the Germans employed only a few of their own design, supplemented by captured Allied tanks.

Neither side proved able to deliver a decisive blow for the next two years. Throughout —17, the British Empire and France suffered more casualties than Germany, because of both the strategic and tactical stances chosen by the sides.

Strategically, while the Germans mounted only one major offensive, the Allies made several attempts to break through the German lines. In February the Germans attacked French defensive positions at the Battle of Verdun , lasting until December The Germans made initial gains, before French counter-attacks returned matters to near their starting point.

Casualties were greater for the French, but the Germans bled heavily as well, with anywhere from , [99] to , [] casualties suffered between the two combatants.

Verdun became a symbol of French determination and self-sacrifice. The opening day of the offensive 1 July was the bloodiest day in the history of the British Army , suffering 57, casualties, including 19, dead.

The entire Somme offensive cost the British Army some , casualties. The French suffered another estimated , casualties and the Germans an estimated , To maintain morale, wartime censors minimised early reports of widespread influenza illness and mortality in Germany, the United Kingdom, France, and the United States.

Protracted action at Verdun throughout , [] combined with the bloodletting at the Somme, brought the exhausted French army to the brink of collapse.

Futile attempts using frontal assault came at a high price for both the British and the French and led to the widespread French Army Mutinies , after the failure of the costly Nivelle Offensive of April—May The last large-scale offensive of this period was a British attack with French support at Passchendaele July—November This offensive opened with great promise for the Allies, before bogging down in the October mud.

Casualties, though disputed, were roughly equal, at some ,—, per side. The years of trench warfare on the Western front achieved no major exchanges of territory and, as a result, are often thought of as static and unchanging.

However, throughout this period, British, French, and German tactics constantly evolved to meet new battlefield challenges. At the start of the war, the German Empire had cruisers scattered across the globe, some of which were subsequently used to attack Allied merchant shipping.

The British Royal Navy systematically hunted them down, though not without some embarrassment from its inability to protect Allied shipping.

Before the beginning of the war, it was widely understood that Britain held the position of strongest, most influential navy in the world.

Instead, this book made it to Germany and inspired its readers to try to over-power the British Royal Navy. Soon after the outbreak of hostilities, Britain began a naval blockade of Germany.

The strategy proved effective, cutting off vital military and civilian supplies, although this blockade violated accepted international law codified by several international agreements of the past two centuries.

It was the only full-scale clash of battleships during the war, and one of the largest in history. The engagement was a stand off, as the Germans were outmanoeuvred by the larger British fleet, but managed to escape and inflicted more damage to the British fleet than they received.

Strategically, however, the British asserted their control of the sea, and the bulk of the German surface fleet remained confined to port for the duration of the war.

German U-boats attempted to cut the supply lines between North America and Britain. After the sinking of the passenger ship RMS Lusitania in , Germany promised not to target passenger liners, while Britain armed its merchant ships, placing them beyond the protection of the " cruiser rules ", which demanded warning and movement of crews to "a place of safety" a standard that lifeboats did not meet.

The U-boat threat lessened in , when merchant ships began travelling in convoys , escorted by destroyers. This tactic made it difficult for U-boats to find targets, which significantly lessened losses; after the hydrophone and depth charges were introduced, accompanying destroyers could attack a submerged submarine with some hope of success.

Convoys slowed the flow of supplies, since ships had to wait as convoys were assembled. The solution to the delays was an extensive program of building new freighters.

Troopships were too fast for the submarines and did not travel the North Atlantic in convoys. Faced with Russia in the east, Austria-Hungary could spare only one-third of its army to attack Serbia.

After suffering heavy losses, the Austrians briefly occupied the Serbian capital, Belgrade. A Serbian counter-attack in the Battle of Kolubara succeeded in driving them from the country by the end of For the first ten months of , Austria-Hungary used most of its military reserves to fight Italy.

German and Austro-Hungarian diplomats, however, scored a coup by persuading Bulgaria to join the attack on Serbia.

Montenegro allied itself with Serbia. Bulgaria declared war on Serbia on 12 October and joined in the attack by the Austro-Hungarian army under Mackensen's army of , that was already underway.

Serbia was conquered in a little more than a month, as the Central Powers, now including Bulgaria, sent in , troops total. The Serbian army, fighting on two fronts and facing certain defeat, retreated into northern Albania.

The Serbs suffered defeat in the Battle of Kosovo. Montenegro covered the Serbian retreat towards the Adriatic coast in the Battle of Mojkovac in 6—7 January , but ultimately the Austrians also conquered Montenegro.

The surviving Serbian soldiers were evacuated by ship to Greece. In late , a Franco-British force landed at Salonica in Greece to offer assistance and to pressure its government to declare war against the Central Powers.

After intense negotiations and an armed confrontation in Athens between Allied and royalist forces an incident known as Noemvriana , the King of Greece resigned and his second son Alexander took his place; Greece officially joined the war on the side of the Allies in June The Macedonian front was initially mostly static.

French and Serbian forces retook limited areas of Macedonia by recapturing Bitola on 19 November following the costly Monastir Offensive , which brought stabilisation of the front.

Serbian and French troops finally made a breakthrough in September in the Vardar Offensive , after most of the German and Austro-Hungarian troops had been withdrawn.

The Bulgarians were defeated at the Battle of Dobro Pole , and by 25 September British and French troops had crossed the border into Bulgaria proper as the Bulgarian army collapsed.

Bulgaria capitulated four days later, on 29 September The disappearance of the Macedonian front meant that the road to Budapest and Vienna was now opened to Allied forces.

Hindenburg and Ludendorff concluded that the strategic and operational balance had now shifted decidedly against the Central Powers and, a day after the Bulgarian collapse, insisted on an immediate peace settlement.

As the conflict progressed, the Ottoman Empire took advantage of the European powers' preoccupation with the war and conducted large-scale ethnic cleansing of the indigenous Armenian , Greek , and Assyrian Christian populations, known as the Armenian Genocide , Greek Genocide , and Assyrian Genocide.

The British and French opened overseas fronts with the Gallipoli and Mesopotamian campaigns In Mesopotamia , by contrast, after the defeat of the British defenders in the Siege of Kut by the Ottomans —16 , British Imperial forces reorganised and captured Baghdad in March The British were aided in Mesopotamia by local Arab and Assyrian tribesmen, while the Ottomans employed local Kurdish and Turcoman tribes.

Russian armies generally had success in the Caucasus campaign. Enver Pasha , supreme commander of the Ottoman armed forces, was ambitious and dreamed of re-conquering central Asia and areas that had been lost to Russia previously.

He was, however, a poor commander. The Ottomans and Germans were aided by Kurdish and Azeri forces, together with a large number of major Iranian tribes, such as the Qashqai , Tangistanis , Luristanis , and Khamseh , while the Russians and British had the support of Armenian and Assyrian forces.

The Persian Campaign was to last until and end in failure for the Ottomans and their allies. However, the Russian withdrawal from the war in led to Armenian and Assyrian forces, who had hitherto inflicted a series of defeats upon the forces of the Ottomans and their allies, being cut off from supply lines, outnumbered, outgunned and isolated, forcing them to fight and flee towards British lines in northern Mesopotamia.

General Yudenich , the Russian commander from to , drove the Turks out of most of the southern Caucasus with a string of victories. Nicholas planned a railway from Russian Georgia to the conquered territories, so that fresh supplies could be brought up for a new offensive in However, in March February in the pre-revolutionary Russian calendar , the Tsar abdicated in the course of the February Revolution , and the Russian Caucasus Army began to fall apart.

Fakhri Pasha , the Ottoman commander of Medina , resisted for more than two and half years during the Siege of Medina before surrendering in January The Senussi tribe, along the border of Italian Libya and British Egypt, incited and armed by the Turks, waged a small-scale guerrilla war against Allied troops.

The British were forced to dispatch 12, troops to oppose them in the Senussi Campaign. Their rebellion was finally crushed in mid Total Allied casualties on the Ottoman fronts amounted , men.

Total Ottoman casualties were , , dead and , wounded. Rome had a secret pact with France, effectively nullifying its part in the Triple Alliance; [] Italy secretly agreed with France to remain neutral if the latter was attacked by Germany.

The Austro-Hungarian government began negotiations to secure Italian neutrality, offering the French colony of Tunisia in return. The Allies made a counter-offer in which Italy would receive the Southern Tyrol , Austrian Littoral and territory on the Dalmatian coast after the defeat of Austria-Hungary.

This was formalised by the Treaty of London. Fifteen months later, Italy declared war on Germany. The Italians had numerical superiority, but this advantage was lost, not only because of the difficult terrain in which the fighting took place, but also because of the strategies and tactics employed.

On the Trentino front, the Austro-Hungarians took advantage of the mountainous terrain, which favoured the defender.

After an initial strategic retreat, the front remained largely unchanged, while Austrian Kaiserschützen and Standschützen engaged Italian Alpini in bitter hand-to-hand combat throughout the summer.

The Austro-Hungarians counterattacked in the Altopiano of Asiago , towards Verona and Padua, in the spring of Strafexpedition , but made little progress and were defeated by the Italians.

Of these eleven offensives, five were won by Italy, three remained inconclusive, and the other three were repelled by the Austro-Hungarians, who held the higher ground.

The Central Powers launched a crushing offensive on 26 October , spearheaded by the Germans, and achieved a victory at Caporetto Kobarid.

The new Italian chief of staff, Armando Diaz , ordered the Army to stop their retreat and defend the Monte Grappa summit, where fortified defenses were constructed; the Italians repelled the Austro-Hungarian and German Army, and stabilised the front at the Piave River.

Since the Italian Army had suffered heavy losses in the Battle of Caporetto, the Italian Government ordered conscription of the so-called ' 99 Boys Ragazzi del '99 : all males born in and prior, who were 18 years old or older.

In , the Austro-Hungarians failed to break through in a series of battles on the Piave and were finally decisively defeated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in October.

On the same day, the Armistice of Villa Giusti was signed. By mid-November , the Italian military occupied the entire former Austrian Littoral and had seized control of the portion of Dalmatia that had been guaranteed to Italy by the London Pact.

Romania had been allied with the Central Powers since When the war began, however, it declared its neutrality, arguing that because Austria-Hungary had itself declared war on Serbia, Romania was under no obligation to join the war.

In return, it received the Allies' formal sanction for Transylvania , Banat and other territories of Austria-Hungary to be annexed to Romania.

The action had large popular support. The Romanian offensive was initially successful in Transylvania, but a Central Powers counterattack by the drove them back.

In January , Romanian forces established control over Bessarabia as the Russian Army abandoned the province. Under the treaty, Romania was obliged to end the war with the Central Powers and make small territorial concessions to Austria-Hungary, ceding control of some passes in the Carpathian Mountains , and to grant oil concessions to Germany.

In exchange, the Central Powers recognised the sovereignty of Romania over Bessarabia. The treaty was renounced in October by the Alexandru Marghiloman government, and Romania nominally re-entered the war on 10 November against the Central Powers.

Russian plans for the start of the war called for simultaneous invasions of Austrian Galicia and East Prussia. Although Russia's initial advance into Galicia was largely successful, it was driven back from East Prussia by Hindenburg and Ludendorff at the battles of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes in August and September Despite Russia's success in the June Brusilov Offensive against the Austrians in eastern Galicia, [] the offensive was undermined by the reluctance of other Russian generals to commit their forces to support the victory.

Allied and Russian forces were revived only briefly by Romania's entry into the war on 27 August, as Romania was rapidly defeated by a Central Powers offensive.

Meanwhile, unrest grew in Russia as the Tsar remained at the front. The increasingly incompetent rule of Empress Alexandra drew protests and resulted in the murder of her favourite, Rasputin , at the end of In March , demonstrations in Petrograd culminated in the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the appointment of a weak Provisional Government , which shared power with the Petrograd Soviet socialists.

This arrangement led to confusion and chaos both at the front and at home. The army became increasingly ineffective. Following the Tsar's abdication, Vladimir Lenin —with the help of the German government—was ushered by train from Switzerland into Russia 16 April The Revolution of November was followed in December by an armistice and negotiations with Germany.

The treaty ceded vast territories, including Finland, the Baltic provinces , parts of Poland and Ukraine to the Central Powers.

With the adoption of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the Entente no longer existed. The Allied powers led a small-scale invasion of Russia, partly to stop Germany from exploiting Russian resources, and to a lesser extent, to support the "Whites" as opposed to the "Reds" in the Russian Civil War.

The Czechoslovak Legion fought on the side of the Entente. Its goal was to win support for the independence of Czechoslovakia. After this success, the number of Czechoslovak legionaries increased, as well as Czechoslovak military power.

In the Battle of Bakhmach , the Legion defeated the Germans and forced them to make a truce. In Russia, they were heavily involved in the Russian Civil War, siding with the Whites against the Bolsheviks , at times controlling most of the Trans-Siberian railway and conquering all the major cities of Siberia.

The presence of the Czechoslovak Legion near Yekaterinburg appears to have been one of the motivations for the Bolshevik execution of the Tsar and his family in July Legionaries arrived less than a week afterwards and captured the city.

Because Russia's European ports were not safe, the corps was evacuated by a long detour via the port of Vladivostok. The last transport was the American ship Heffron in September On 12 December , after ten brutal months of the Battle of Verdun and a successful offensive against Romania , Germany attempted to negotiate a peace with the Allies.

Soon after, the US president, Woodrow Wilson, attempted to intervene as a peacemaker, asking in a note for both sides to state their demands.

Lloyd George's War Cabinet considered the German offer to be a ploy to create divisions amongst the Allies. After initial outrage and much deliberation, they took Wilson's note as a separate effort, signalling that the United States was on the verge of entering the war against Germany following the "submarine outrages".

While the Allies debated a response to Wilson's offer, the Germans chose to rebuff it in favour of "a direct exchange of views".

Learning of the German response, the Allied governments were free to make clear demands in their response of 14 January.

They sought restoration of damages, the evacuation of occupied territories, reparations for France, Russia and Romania, and a recognition of the principle of nationalities.

Events of proved decisive in ending the war, although their effects were not fully felt until The British naval blockade began to have a serious impact on Germany.

In response, in February , the German General Staff convinced Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg to declare unrestricted submarine warfare, with the goal of starving Britain out of the war.

German planners estimated that unrestricted submarine warfare would cost Britain a monthly shipping loss of , tons.

The General Staff acknowledged that the policy would almost certainly bring the United States into the conflict, but calculated that British shipping losses would be so high that they would be forced to sue for peace after five to six months, before American intervention could have an effect.

After July, the newly re-introduced convoy system became effective in reducing the U-boat threat. Britain was safe from starvation, while German industrial output fell, and the United States joined the war far earlier than Germany had anticipated.

On 3 May , during the Nivelle Offensive, the French 2nd Colonial Division, veterans of the Battle of Verdun, refused orders, arriving drunk and without their weapons.

Their officers lacked the means to punish an entire division, and harsh measures were not immediately implemented. The French Army Mutinies eventually spread to a further 54 French divisions, and 20, men deserted.

However, appeals to patriotism and duty, as well as mass arrests and trials, encouraged the soldiers to return to defend their trenches, although the French soldiers refused to participate in further offensive action.

Previously, British and French armies had operated under separate commands. In December, the Central Powers signed an armistice with Russia, thus freeing large numbers of German troops for use in the west.

With German reinforcements and new American troops pouring in, the outcome was to be decided on the Western Front. The Central Powers knew that they could not win a protracted war, but they held high hopes for success based on a final quick offensive.

Furthermore, both sides became increasingly fearful of social unrest and revolution in Europe. Thus, both sides urgently sought a decisive victory.

In , Emperor Charles I of Austria secretly attempted separate peace negotiations with Clemenceau, through his wife's brother Sixtus in Belgium as an intermediary, without the knowledge of Germany.

Italy opposed the proposals. When the negotiations failed, his attempt was revealed to Germany, resulting in a diplomatic catastrophe.

In early , the front line was extended and the Jordan Valley was occupied, following the First Transjordan and the Second Transjordan attacks by British Empire forces in March and April They were replaced by Indian Army units.

During several months of reorganisation and training of the summer, a number of attacks were carried out on sections of the Ottoman front line.

These pushed the front line north to more advantageous positions for the Entente in preparation for an attack and to acclimatise the newly arrived Indian Army infantry.

It was not until the middle of September that the integrated force was ready for large-scale operations. The reorganised Egyptian Expeditionary Force, with an additional mounted division, broke Ottoman forces at the Battle of Megiddo in September In two days the British and Indian infantry, supported by a creeping barrage, broke the Ottoman front line and captured the headquarters of the Eighth Army Ottoman Empire at Tulkarm , the continuous trench lines at Tabsor , Arara , and the Seventh Army Ottoman Empire headquarters at Nablus.

The Desert Mounted Corps rode through the break in the front line created by the infantry. Samakh and Tiberias on the Sea of Galilee were captured on the way northwards to Damascus.

The Armistice of Mudros , signed at the end of October, ended hostilities with the Ottoman Empire when fighting was continuing north of Aleppo.

At the outbreak of the war, the United States pursued a policy of non-intervention , avoiding conflict while trying to broker a peace.

Germany complied. Wilson unsuccessfully tried to mediate a settlement. However, he also repeatedly warned that the United States would not tolerate unrestricted submarine warfare, in violation of international law.

Former president Theodore Roosevelt denounced German acts as "piracy". In January , Germany decided to resume unrestricted submarine warfare, in the hopes of starving Britain into surrender.

Germany did this realising it would mean American entry. In return, the Germans would finance Mexico's war and help it recover the territories of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.

From there it made its way to President Wilson who released the Zimmermann note to the public, and Americans saw it as casus belli. Wilson called on anti-war elements to end all wars, by winning this one and eliminating militarism from the globe.

He argued that the war was so important that the US had to have a voice in the peace conference. The United States was never formally a member of the Allies but became a self-styled "Associated Power".

The United States had a small army, but, after the passage of the Selective Service Act , it drafted 2. German General Staff assumptions that it would be able to defeat the British and French forces before American troops reinforced them were proven incorrect.

Several regiments of US Marines were also dispatched to France. The British and French wanted American units used to reinforce their troops already on the battle lines and not waste scarce shipping on bringing over supplies.

General John J. As an exception, he did allow African-American combat regiments to be used in French divisions. General Foch was appointed as supreme commander of the Allied forces.

Haig, Petain, and Pershing retained tactical control of their respective armies; Foch assumed a co-ordinating rather than a directing role, and the British, French, and US commands operated largely independently.

General Foch pressed to use the arriving American troops as individual replacements, whereas Pershing still sought to field American units as an independent force.

These units were assigned to the depleted French and British Empire commands on 28 March Ludendorff drew up plans codenamed Operation Michael for the offensive on the Western Front.

The Spring Offensive sought to divide the British and French forces with a series of feints and advances. The German leadership hoped to end the war before significant US forces arrived.

The operation commenced on 21 March with an attack on British forces near Saint-Quentin. British and French trenches were penetrated using novel infiltration tactics , also named Hutier tactics after General Oskar von Hutier , by specially trained units called stormtroopers.

Previously, attacks had been characterised by long artillery bombardments and massed assaults. In the Spring Offensive of , however, Ludendorff used artillery only briefly and infiltrated small groups of infantry at weak points.

They attacked command and logistics areas and bypassed points of serious resistance. More heavily armed infantry then destroyed these isolated positions.

This German success relied greatly on the element of surprise. Many Germans thought victory was near. After heavy fighting, however, the offensive was halted.

Lacking tanks or motorised artillery , the Germans were unable to consolidate their gains. The problems of re-supply were also exacerbated by increasing distances that now stretched over terrain that was shell-torn and often impassable to traffic.

The Allies halted the drive after limited territorial gains by Germany. The resulting counter-attack, which started the Hundred Days Offensive , marked the first successful Allied offensive of the war.

By 20 July, the Germans had retreated across the Marne to their starting lines, [] having achieved little, and the German Army never regained the initiative.

German casualties between March and April were ,, including many highly trained stormtroopers. Meanwhile, Germany was falling apart at home.

Anti-war marches became frequent and morale in the army fell. Industrial output was half the levels. In the late spring of , three new states were formed in the South Caucasus : the First Republic of Armenia , the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic , and the Democratic Republic of Georgia , which declared their independence from the Russian Empire.

Two other minor entities were established, the Centrocaspian Dictatorship and South West Caucasian Republic the former was liquidated by Azerbaijan in the autumn of and the latter by a joint Armenian-British task force in early With the withdrawal of the Russian armies from the Caucasus front in the winter of —18, the three major republics braced for an imminent Ottoman advance, which commenced in the early months of Solidarity was briefly maintained when the Transcaucasian Federative Republic was created in the spring of , but this collapsed in May, when the Georgians asked for and received protection from Germany and the Azerbaijanis concluded a treaty with the Ottoman Empire that was more akin to a military alliance.

Armenia was left to fend for itself and struggled for five months against the threat of a full-fledged occupation by the Ottoman Turks before defeating them at the Battle of Sardarabad.

The defenders displayed a marked collapse in morale, causing Ludendorff to refer to this day as the "Black Day of the German army".

Rather than continuing the Amiens battle past the point of initial success, as had been done so many times in the past, the Allies shifted attention elsewhere.

Allied leaders had now realised that to continue an attack after resistance had hardened was a waste of lives, and it was better to turn a line than to try to roll over it.

They began to undertake attacks in quick order to take advantage of successful advances on the flanks, then broke them off when each attack lost its initial impetus.

The day after the Offensive began, Ludendorff said: "We cannot win the war any more, but we must not lose it either.

We have nearly reached the limit of our powers of resistance. The war must be ended. Austria and Hungary warned that they could continue the war only until December, and Ludendorff recommended immediate peace negotiations.

Prince Rupprecht warned Prince Maximilian of Baden : "Our military situation has deteriorated so rapidly that I no longer believe we can hold out over the winter; it is even possible that a catastrophe will come earlier.

British and Dominion forces launched the next phase of the campaign with the Battle of Albert on 21 August. From German accounts, "Each day was spent in bloody fighting against an ever and again on-storming enemy, and nights passed without sleep in retirements to new lines.

This ceded without a fight the salient seized the previous April. The German High Command realised that the war was lost and made attempts to reach a satisfactory end.

On 14 September Austria sent a note to all belligerents and neutrals suggesting a meeting for peace talks on neutral soil, and on 15 September Germany made a peace offer to Belgium.

Both peace offers were rejected. In September the Allies advanced to the Hindenburg Line in the north and centre.

The Germans had now retreated to positions along or behind the Hindenburg Line. That same day, Supreme Army Command informed the leaders in Berlin that armistice talks were inevitable.

The following week, co-operating French and American units broke through in Champagne at the Battle of Blanc Mont Ridge , forcing the Germans off the commanding heights, and closing towards the Belgian frontier.

When Bulgaria signed a separate armistice on 29 September, Ludendorff, having been under great stress for months, suffered something similar to a breakdown.

It was evident that Germany could no longer mount a successful defence. The collapse of the Balkans meant that Germany was about to lose its main supplies of oil and food.

Its reserves had been used up, even as US troops kept arriving at the rate of 10, per day. News of Germany's impending military defeat spread throughout the German armed forces.

The threat of mutiny was rife. Admiral Reinhard Scheer and Ludendorff decided to launch a last attempt to restore the "valour" of the German Navy.

In northern Germany, the German Revolution of — began at the end of October Units of the German Navy refused to set sail for a last, large-scale operation in a war they believed to be as good as lost, initiating the uprising.

With the military faltering and with widespread loss of confidence in the Kaiser leading to his abdication and fleeing of the country, Germany moved towards surrender.

Negotiations with President Wilson began immediately, in the hope that he would offer better terms than the British and French.

Wilson demanded a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary control over the German military. The Kaiser, kings and other hereditary rulers all were removed from power and Wilhelm fled to exile in the Netherlands.

The collapse of the Central Powers came swiftly. Bulgaria was the first to sign an armistice, the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September On 24 October, the Italians began a push that rapidly recovered territory lost after the Battle of Caporetto.

This culminated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, which marked the end of the Austro-Hungarian Army as an effective fighting force.

The offensive also triggered the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the last week of October, declarations of independence were made in Budapest, Prague, and Zagreb.

On 29 October, the imperial authorities asked Italy for an armistice, but the Italians continued advancing, reaching Trento, Udine, and Trieste.

The terms, arranged by telegraph with the Allied Authorities in Paris, were communicated to the Austrian commander and accepted.

Austria and Hungary signed separate armistices following the overthrow of the Habsburg Monarchy. In the following days the Italian Army occupied Innsbruck and all Tyrol with over 20, soldiers.

During the six hours between the signing of the armistice and its taking effect, opposing armies on the Western Front began to withdraw from their positions, but fighting continued along many areas of the front, as commanders wanted to capture territory before the war ended.

The occupation of the Rhineland took place following the Armistice. The occupying armies consisted of American, Belgian, British and French forces.

In November , the Allies had ample supplies of men and materiel to invade Germany. These factors enabled Hindenburg and other senior German leaders to spread the story that their armies had not really been defeated.

This resulted in the stab-in-the-back legend , [] [] which attributed Germany's defeat not to its inability to continue fighting even though up to a million soldiers were suffering from the flu pandemic and unfit to fight , but to the public's failure to respond to its "patriotic calling" and the supposed intentional sabotage of the war effort, particularly by Jews, Socialists, and Bolsheviks.

The Allies had much more potential wealth they could spend on the war. In the aftermath of the war, four empires disappeared: the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, and Russian.

Numerous nations regained their former independence, and new ones were created. Four dynasties, together with their ancillary aristocracies, fell as a result of the war: the Romanovs , the Hohenzollerns , the Habsburgs , and the Ottomans.

Belgium and Serbia were badly damaged, as was France, with 1. Germany and Russia were similarly affected. A formal state of war between the two sides persisted for another seven months, until the signing of the Treaty of Versailles with Germany on 28 June However, the negotiation of the treaty with the Ottoman Empire was followed by strife, and a final peace treaty between the Allied Powers and the country that would shortly become the Republic of Turkey was not signed until 24 July , at Lausanne.

Some war memorials date the end of the war as being when the Versailles Treaty was signed in , which was when many of the troops serving abroad finally returned home; by contrast, most commemorations of the war's end concentrate on the armistice of 11 November Under its terms, the Allied forces left Constantinople on 23 August After the war, the Paris Peace Conference imposed a series of peace treaties on the Central Powers officially ending the war.

The Treaty of Versailles dealt with Germany and, building on Wilson's 14th point , brought into being the League of Nations on 28 June The Central Powers had to acknowledge responsibility for "all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by" their aggression.

In the Treaty of Versailles, this statement was Article This article became known as the War Guilt clause as the majority of Germans felt humiliated and resentful.

German historian Hagen Schulze said the Treaty placed Germany "under legal sanctions, deprived of military power, economically ruined, and politically humiliated.

Active denial of war guilt in Germany and German resentment at both reparations and continued Allied occupation of the Rhineland made widespread revision of the meaning and memory of the war problematic.

Bake for 18 minutes until the fish is cooked through and the breadcrumbs are golden. To make the shredded salad, toss together all the salad ingredients in a large bowl until well combined.

Spoon the curry sauce onto the plates, then top with the crumbled fish fillets. Serve with the rice and salad on the side.

Drain, reserving 60ml of the pasta cooking water. Add the garlic and chilli flakes, then cook, stirring constantly, for 1 minute.

Add the anchovies and cook for 1 minute, stirring frequently, until the anchovies soften. Add the pasta and broccoli to the pan, season well and toss together.

Cook for minutes, adding the reserved cooking liquid if the mixture seems a little dry. Divide the pasta between plates, then scatter over the shaved Parmesan and extra chilli flakes to serve.

Reduce the heat and simmer for 15 minutes, until just tender. Drain and return to the pan, then add the soured cream and low-fat spread.

Season to taste and mash until smooth. Meanwhile, heat 2 tsp of the oil in a large frying pan over a medium heat.

Add the carrots, celery and onion and cook, stirring, for minutes until softened. Stir in the corn and garlic and cook, stirring constantly, for 1 minute.

Transfer to a bowl and set aside. Heat the remaining oil in the pan and cook the turkey for 5 minutes, breaking up any lumps with a wooden spoon, until browned.

Stir in the tomato puree, rosemary and thyme, then season and cook for 2 minutes. Return the carrot mixture to the pan, stir in the flour and chicken stock and cook for 2 minutes, stirring, until thickened.

Preheat the oven to degrees and mist a 20cm x 30cm baking dish with cooking spray. Spoon the turkey mince into the prepared baking dish then spread over the mashed potatoes.

Bake for minutes until the filling is bubbling and the potato topping is golden. Mist a 23cm springform cake tin with cooking spray and dust the base and sides with 1 tbsp of the cocoa powder.

Put the chocolate and butter in a microwave-safe bowl. Cover and microwave on high for 1 minute until melted. Stir until combined, then set aside to cool.

Set aside. Put the egg yolks and 65g of the granulated sugar in a medium bowl. Beat using a hand-held electric whisk until pale and creamy.

Add the chocolate mixture and vanilla extract, then beat until smooth. In a separate bowl, whisk together the egg whites and salt until soft peaks form.

Gradually add the remaining granulated sugar, 2 tbsp at a time, until combined, then beat for a final 2 minutes until you have a thick, glossy meringue.

Gently fold one-third of the meringue into the chocolate and almond mixture. Repeat with the remaining meringue until combined.

Transfer to the prepared cake tin and smooth the surface with a spatula. Bake for 40 minutes until a skewer inserted into the centre of the cake comes out clean.

Allow the cake to cool completely in the tin — this will take approximately 1 hour. Gently release the cake from the tin, transfer to a cake stand and dust over the icing sugar.

Serve with the fresh raspberries scattered over the top. Mist 4 x ml ramekins with the cooking spray to coat. Put the sugar in a mixing bowl and sift in the flour and cocoa powder.

Make a well in the centre, then beat in the eggs, milk and oil to make a smooth batter. Spoon the batter between the ramekins and bake for 12 minutes, until risen and just firm.

Sprinkle over the white chocolate and serve. Working quickly, put 2 x 50ml scoops low-calorie salted caramel ice cream WW used Oppo into small dessert glasses or bowls, then pour over the almond flavoured coffee and serve immediately with 2 sugar-free ice cream wafers WW used Tesco on the side of each.

Beat in the sugar, lime juice, vanilla and half the lime zest. Refrigerate for hours to firm up. Spoon the mixture into the mini tart cases, scatter over the remaining lime zest and top with the flaked almonds.

Put the coconut flakes on a foil-lined baking sheet and bake for minutes or until golden, then remove from the oven and set aside to cool slightly.

Finely chop half the coconut flakes, reserving the rest for serving, and add to a large pan. Add the rice, milk, sugar, zest, cinnamon, nutmeg and vanilla extract to the pan, and stir to combine.

Simmer for minutes, stirring occasionally at the beginning and more often as the rice swells, until the rice is tender and the consistency is creamy.

Divide the rice pudding between 6 small dessert dishes or glasses, scatter over the reserved toasted coconut flakes and dust with the extra cinnamon.

Serve warm or chilled. Mist a hole mini muffin tin with cooking spray. To make the biscuit dough, put 60g of the soft cheese and all the butter in a medium bowl, then beat with a hand-held electric whisk until smooth.

Add the milk and 1 tablespoon of the granulated sugar and beat until blended. Add both flours and a pinch of salt, stirring until moist clumps form.

Knead the dough in the bowl 4 times to form a ball. Divide the dough into 24 pieces about 1 heaped teaspoon each. Roll one piece of dough into a ball and use your fingers to flatten and shape into a 2.

Press into the base and sides of the prepared muffin tin. Repeat with the remaining pieces of dough. As a member of our WW family, I wanted to reach out to you personally with an update on the steps we are taking to keep our members, our employees, and our entire community healthy and safe.

Your well-being is central to our purpose and our top priority as we join companies around the world responding to the current global health challenge.

We are proud that so many of you consider our Studios safe spaces where your wellness journey is supported, and we want that to continue, so we have taken many proactive steps to maintain the healthiest possible environment.

We encourage you to do the same, so please review the most up-to-date information here. In addition to our members, we are committed to taking care of our WW team across the globe.

That is why we have suspended all international and domestic air travel for employees. Those who have traveled to high-risk areas have been required to self-quarantine for the recommended 14 days.

We are providing all team members with constant updates and information so they can keep themselves and their families safe. WW is a science-based organization, so we will, of course, continue to follow the recommendations of the CDC, WHO, and local health authorities.

We also feel fortunate to have the in-house leadership of a Chief Science Officer, as well as top-flight advisory boards.

Rest assured that our team members around the world are collaborating closely to make quick, thoughtful, and well-informed decisions. Check our Studio Finder on WW.

Currently, Workshops are continuing, but we have instructed all our team members to avoid Studio spaces if they have any concerns about exposure, or at the slightest sign of illness.

We ask you to do the same. Thankfully, our robust digital tools are always there to support you. The WW app has all the features you need to stay focused on your well-being, including food and activity tracking, nourishing recipes, Aaptiv audio workouts you can do at home, and Headspace meditations designed to help with stress.

Community has never been more important, and you can always find it on Connect, our close-knit and inspiring social network. Use our WW app tutorial to take advantage of all these features, and more.

And check here for resources and tips that can help you take good care of yourself and your loved ones in the coming weeks. As a mother and grandmother, as well as a CEO and member of WW, I want you to know that you are constantly in my thoughts.

Since our founder, Jean Nidetch, held her first meeting in her living room, and throughout our 57 years, WW has been about community. That will never change.

Look out for regular updates from us as we navigate this evolving situation, and thank you for being a part of our WW family.

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