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Try Checking a Competing Website. Audience Overlap Similar sites that share the same visitors and search keywords with this site. I should rather prefer such an increase in the threatening attitude of Russia, that Europe would have to make up its mind to become equally threatening—namely to acquire one will, by means of a new caste to rule over the Continent, a persistent, dreadful will of its own, that can set its aims thousands of years ahead.

The time for petty politics is past; the next century will bring the struggle for the domination of the world.

Similarly, he outlined the logistic growth of empires from the Bronze Age till his days, when "six states govern Vacher de Lapouge did not bet on Washington and Berlin in the final contest for world domination contrary to K'ang Yu-wei.

Like his earlier compatriot, Alexis de Tocqueville , he guessed the Cold War contenders correctly but he went one step further.

He estimated the chances of the United States as favorite in the final confrontation:. The reign of Europe is over, well over The future of France seems less certain but it is unnecessary to become illusioned I do not believe by the way that Germany might count for a much longer future We could The latter I also believe that the United States is appealed to triumph.

Otherwise, the universe would be Russian. This commonwealth must, as far as we can visualize it, consist of a world legislature, whose members will, as the trustees of the whole of mankind, ultimately control the entire resources of all the component nations, and will enact such laws as shall be required to regulate the life, satisfy the needs and adjust the relationships of all races and peoples.

A world executive, backed by an international Force, will carry out the decisions arrived at, and apply the laws enacted by, this world legislature, and will safeguard the organic unity of the whole commonwealth.

A world tribunal will adjudicate and deliver its compulsory and final verdict in all and any disputes that may arise between the various elements constituting this universal system.

Starting in , International Peace Congresses were held in Europe every two years, but lost their momentum after due to the renewed outbreak of wars in Europe Crimea and North America American Civil War.

International organizations started forming in the late 19th century — the International Committee of the Red Cross in , the Telegraphic Union in and the Universal Postal Union in The increase in international trade at the turn of the 20th century accelerated the formation of international organizations, and, by the start of World War I in , there were approximately of them.

Support for the idea of establishing international law grew during that period as well. The Institute of International Law was formed in by the Belgian Jurist Gustave Rolin-Jaequemyns , leading to the creation of concrete legal drafts, for example by the Swiss Johaan Bluntschli in The first embryonic world parliament , called the Inter-Parliamentary Union , was organized in by Cremer and Passy, composed of legislators from many countries.

In the Union formally proposed "an international congress which should meet periodically to discuss international questions". Wells was a strong proponent of the creation of a world state, arguing that such a state would ensure world peace and justice.

Wells envisaged that "the great urban region between Chicago and the Atlantic" will unify the English-speaking states, and this larger English-speaking unit, "a New Republic dominating the world", will by the year become the means "by which the final peace of the world may be assured forever".

It will be "a new social Hercules that will strangle the serpents of war and national animosity in his cradle". Such a synthesis "of the peoples now using the English tongue, I regard not only as possible, but as a probable, thing".

The New Republic must ultimately become a "World-State". The League of Nations LoN was an inter-governmental organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in — At its largest size from 28 September to 23 February , it had 58 members.

The League's goals included upholding the Rights of Man , such as the rights of non-whites, women, and soldiers; disarmament , preventing war through collective security , settling disputes between countries through negotiation, diplomacy , and improving global quality of life.

The diplomatic philosophy behind the League represented a fundamental shift in thought from the preceding hundred years.

The League lacked its own armed force and so depended on the Great Powers to enforce its resolutions and economic sanctions and provide an army, when needed.

However, these powers proved reluctant to do so. Lacking many of the key elements necessary to maintain world peace, the League failed to prevent World War II.

Hitler withdrew Germany from the League of Nations once he planned to take over Europe. The rest of the Axis powers soon followed him.

Having failed its primary goal, the League of Nations fell apart. Below these were many agencies. The Assembly was where delegates from all member states conferred.

Each country was allowed three representatives and one vote. According to Karl Marx 's theory of historical materialism , the capitalist epoch depends on the expansion of competing geopolitical markets across the planet, atomizing the global proletariat and thus sustaining economic disparity and rivalry between markets.

Eventually, this will be succeeded by a Socialist epoch in which the working class throughout the world will unite to render national distinctiveness meaningless.

Although world Communism 's long-term goal is a worldwide Communist society that is stateless, which would entail an absence of any government, many anti-Communists especially during the Cold War have considered it naive to think that the world revolution advocated by international Communists would lead to world domination by a single government or an alliance of several, yielding a de facto world government of a totalitarian nature.

The heyday of international Communism was the period from the end of World War I the revolutions of —23 through the s, before the Sino-Soviet split.

Anticipating environmental movements for world unity, like Global Scenario Group , and such concepts as the Planetary phase of civilization and Spaceship Earth , British Geographer Sir Halford Mackinder wrote in Gradually as the arts of life improved, the forests were cleared and the marshes were drained, and the lesser natural regions were fused into greater.

It may perhaps be thought that with the continuance of this process all mankind will be in the end unified … Unless I mistake, it is the message of geography that international cooperation in any future that we need consider must be based on the federal idea.

If our civilization is not to go down in blind internecine conflict, there must be a development of world planning out of regional planning, just as regional planning has come from town planning.

Lionel George Curtis was a British official and author. He originally advocated British Empire Federalism [27] and, later in life, a world state.

He fought in the Second Boer War with the City Imperial Volunteers and served as secretary to Lord Milner a position that had also been held by adventure-novelist John Buchan , during which time he dedicated himself to working for a united self-governing South Africa.

His experience of World War One and the rise of Hitler led him to conceptualize his version of a Federal World Government , which became his life work.

The Nazi Party of Germany envisaged the establishment of a world government under the complete hegemony of the Third Reich. When this control would be achieved, this power could then set up for itself a world police and assure itself "the necessary living space The lower races will have to restrict themselves accordingly".

This was the idea behind the attempt to establish a Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere and behind the struggle for world domination. It was intended as the blueprint for the postwar world after World War II , and turned out to be the foundation for many of the international agreements that currently shape the world.

It first started with the United States and Great Britain, and later all the allies would follow the charter. Some goals include access to raw materials, reduction of trade restrictions, and freedom from fear and wants.

The name, The Atlantic Charter, came from a newspaper that coined the title. However, Winston Churchill would use it, and from then on the Atlantic Charter was the official name.

In retaliation, the Axis powers would raise their morale and try to work their way into Great Britain. The Atlantic Charter was a stepping stone into the creation of the United Nations.

President Harry S. Truman commented: "We must make the United Nations continue to work, and to be a going concern, to see that difficulties between nations may be settled just as we settle difficulties between States here in the United States.

When Kansas and Colorado fall out over the waters in the Arkansas River, they don't go to war over it; they go to the Supreme Court of the United States, and the matter is settled in a just and honorable way.

There is not a difficulty in the whole world that cannot be settled in exactly the same way in a world court". The years between the conclusion of World War II and , when the Korean War started and the Cold War mindset became dominant in international politics, were the "golden age" of the world federalist movement.

Wendell Willkie 's book One World , first published in , sold over 2 million copies. In another, Emery Reves ' book The Anatomy of Peace laid out the arguments for replacing the UN with a federal world government and quickly became the "bible" of world federalists.

The grassroots world federalist movement in the US, led by people such as Grenville Clark , Norman Cousins , Alan Cranston and Robert Hutchins , organized itself into increasingly larger structures, finally forming, in , the United World Federalists later renamed to World Federalist Association, then Citizens for Global Solutions , claiming membership of 47, in Similar movements concurrently formed in many other countries, leading to the formation, at a meeting in Montreux, Switzerland, of a global coalition, now called World Federalist Movement.

By , the movement claimed 56 member groups in 22 countries, with some , members. World War II — resulted in an unprecedented scale of destruction of lives over 60 million dead, most of them civilians , and the use of weapons of mass destruction.

Some of the acts committed against civilians during the war were on such a massive scale of savagery, they came to be widely considered as crimes against humanity itself.

As the war's conclusion drew near, many shocked voices called for the establishment of institutions able to permanently prevent deadly international conflicts.

This led to the founding of the United Nations in , which adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Many, however, felt that the UN, essentially a forum for discussion and coordination between sovereign governments, was insufficiently empowered for the task.

A number of prominent persons, such as Albert Einstein , Winston Churchill , Bertrand Russell and Mahatma Gandhi , called on governments to proceed further by taking gradual steps towards forming an effectual federal world government.

The United Nations main goal is to work on international law, international security, economic development, human rights, social progress, and eventually world peace.

Almost every internationally recognized country is in the U. The United Nations gather regularly in order to solve big problems throughout the world.

The United Nations is also financed by some of the wealthiest nations. The flag shows the Earth from a map that shows all of the populated continents.

The idea of a world parliament was raised at the founding of the League of Nations in the s and again following the end of World War II in , but remained dormant throughout the Cold War.

The Campaign for a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly was formed in by Democracy Without Borders to coordinate pro-UNPA efforts, which as of January has received the support of over 1, Members of Parliament from over countries worldwide, in addition to numerous non-governmental organizations, Nobel and Right Livelihood laureates and heads or former heads of state or government and foreign ministers.

In France, , Garry Davis began an unauthorized speech calling for a world government from the balcony of the UN General Assembly, until he was dragged away by the guards.

Davis renounced his American citizenship and started a Registry of World Citizens. Its first task was to design and begin selling "World Passports", which the organisation argues is legitimatised by on Article 13, Section 2 of the UDHR.

World Passports have allegedly been accepted sporadically by some countries, but no immigration authority has a de facto or de jure policy of acceptance with regards to the document.

The latest edition of the World Passport, which has been on sale since January , is an MRD machine readable document with an alphanumeric code bar enabling computer input plus an embedded "ghost" photo for security, printing overcovered with a plastic film.

Two covers are available: "World Passport", and "World Government Passport" for registered World Citizens , "passport" is in 7 languages on both covers.

Each page within the document is numbered and each page has the World Citizen logo in the background. There are two pages for affiliation with companies, organizations, and firms.

There are nineteen visa pages in the document. On the back cover there are spaces for personal information such as a person's home address.

Legal anthropologist E. Adamson Hoebel concluded his treatise on broadening the legal realist tradition to include non-Western nations: [35] "Whatever the idealist may desire, force and the threat of force are the ultimate power in the determination of international behavior, as in the law within the nation or tribe.

But until force and the threat of force in international relations are brought under social control by the world community, by and for the world society, they remain the instruments of social anarchy and not the sanctions of world law.

The creation in clear-cut terms of the corpus of world law cries for the doing. If world law, however, is to be realized at all, there will have to be minimum of general agreement as to the nature of the physical and ideational world and the relation of men in society to it.

An important and valuable next step will be found in deep-cutting analysis of the major law systems of the contemporary world in order to lay bare their basic postulates — postulates that are too generally hidden; postulates felt, perhaps, by those who live by them, but so much taken for granted that they are rarely expressed or exposed for examination.

When this is done — and it will take the efforts of many keen intellects steeped in the law of at least a dozen lands and also aware of the social nexus of the law — then mankind will be able to see clearly for the first time and clearly where the common consensus of the great living social and law systems lies.

Here will be found the common postulates and values upon which the world community can build. At the same time the truly basic points of conflict that will have to be worked upon for resolution will be revealed.

Law is inherently purposive". While enthusiasm for multinational federalism in Europe incrementally led, over the following decades, to the formation of the European Union , the onset of the Cold War — eliminated the prospects of any progress towards federation with a more global scope.

The movement quickly shrank in size to a much smaller core of activists, and the world government idea all but disappeared from wide public discourse.

Following the end of the Cold War in , interest in a federal world government and, more generally, in the global protection of human rights, was renewed.

The most visible achievement of the world federalism movement during the s is the Rome Statute of , which led to the establishment of the International Criminal Court in In Europe , progress towards forming a federal union of European states gained much momentum, starting in as a trade deal between the German and French people led, in , to the Maastricht Treaty that established the name and enlarged the agreement that the European Union EU is based upon.

The EU expanded , , , to encompass, in , over half a billion people in 28 member states. Wendt argues that a struggle among sovereign individuals results in the formation of a collective identity and eventually a state.

The same forces are present within the international system and could possibly, and potentially inevitably lead to the development of a world state through this 5 stage process.

When the world state would emerge, the traditional expression of states would become localized expressions of the world state.

This process occurs within the default state of anarchy present in the world system. Kant conceptualized the state as sovereign individuals formed out of conflict.

Wendt argues that new methods of communication and coordination can overcome these challenges. As of [update] , there is no functioning global international military , executive , legislature , judiciary , or constitution with jurisdiction over the entire planet.

The world is divided geographically and demographically into mutually exclusive territories and political structures called states which are independent and sovereign in most cases.

There are numerous bodies, institutions, unions, coalitions, agreements and contracts between these units of authority , but, except in cases where a nation is under military occupation by another, all such arrangements depend on the continued consent of the participant nations.

In this way a country's cooperation in international affairs is voluntary, but non-cooperation still has diplomatic consequences.

In addition to the formal, or semi-formal, international organizations and laws mentioned above, many other mechanisms act to regulate human activities across national borders.

In particular, international trade in goods, services and currencies the " global market " has a tremendous impact on the lives of people in almost all parts of the world, creating deep interdependency amongst nations see globalization.

Trans-national or multi-national corporations , some with resources exceeding those available to most governments, govern activities of people on a global scale.

The rapid increase in the volume of trans-border digital communications and mass-media distribution e. The only union generally recognized as having achieved the status of a supranational union is the European Union.

There are a number of other regional organizations that, while not supranational unions, have adopted or intend to adopt policies that may lead to a similar sort of integration in some respects.

The EU is the only supranational politico-economic union and not just an international organization. Although the EU is still evolving, it already has many attributes of a federal government such as open internal borders, a directly elected parliament, a court system, an official currency Euro , and a centralized economic policy.

A treaty change would be needed to allow for enlargement of the Union beyond the European continent. A multitude of regional associations , aggregating most nations of the world, are at different stages of development towards a growing extent of economic, and sometimes political, integration.

The European Union consists of twenty-seven European states. It has developed a "single market" which allows people of different countries to travel from state to state without the need for customs declarations at border security.

This also includes the same policies when it comes to trading. Where the Euro is in place, it allows easy access for the free circulation of trade goods.

Tariffs are also the same for each country allowing no unfair practices within the union. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.

CARICOM's main purpose is to promote economic integration and cooperation among its members, to ensure that the benefits of integration are equitably shared and to coordinate foreign policy.

Its major activities involve coordinating economic policies and development planning; devising and instituting special projects for the less-developed countries within its jurisdiction; operating as a regional single market for many of its members CARICOM Single Market and Economy CSME ; and handling regional trade disputes.

Part of the revised treaty among member states includes the establishment and implementation of the Caribbean Court of Justice CCJ. Eventually, the AU aims to have a single currency and a single integrated defence force, as well as other institutions of state, including a cabinet for the AU Head of State.

Its claimed aims include the acceleration of economic growth, social progress, cultural development among its members, and the promotion of regional peace.

Except for Uzbekistan, these countries had been members of the Shanghai Five ; after the inclusion of Uzbekistan in , the members renamed the organization.

The Commonwealth of Independent States is comparable to a confederation similar to the original European Community.

Although the CIS has few supranational powers, it is more than a purely symbolic organization, possessing coordinating powers in the realm of trade, finance, lawmaking, and security.

It has also promoted cooperation on democratization and cross-border crime prevention. Yemen joined as a member on May 5, It has also been proposed to reform the Arab League into an Arab Union.

The Arab League currently is the most important organization in the region. It incorporates all the independent states of South America.

In terms of population, its sphere of influence is the largest of any regional organization : almost 1. In April , at the Association's 14th summit, Afghanistan became its eighth member.

The organization claims it represents the Global Islamic World ummah. Since the 19th century, many Muslims have aspired to uniting the Muslim ummah to serve their common political, economic and social interests.

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No Results Try searching for a popular competing website instead, and then look at their traffic statistics. This will hasten the world along the road to One World.

Friedrich Nietzsche in his Beyond Good and Evil envisaged:. I should rather prefer such an increase in the threatening attitude of Russia, that Europe would have to make up its mind to become equally threatening—namely to acquire one will, by means of a new caste to rule over the Continent, a persistent, dreadful will of its own, that can set its aims thousands of years ahead.

The time for petty politics is past; the next century will bring the struggle for the domination of the world. Similarly, he outlined the logistic growth of empires from the Bronze Age till his days, when "six states govern Vacher de Lapouge did not bet on Washington and Berlin in the final contest for world domination contrary to K'ang Yu-wei.

Like his earlier compatriot, Alexis de Tocqueville , he guessed the Cold War contenders correctly but he went one step further.

He estimated the chances of the United States as favorite in the final confrontation:. The reign of Europe is over, well over The future of France seems less certain but it is unnecessary to become illusioned I do not believe by the way that Germany might count for a much longer future We could The latter I also believe that the United States is appealed to triumph.

Otherwise, the universe would be Russian. This commonwealth must, as far as we can visualize it, consist of a world legislature, whose members will, as the trustees of the whole of mankind, ultimately control the entire resources of all the component nations, and will enact such laws as shall be required to regulate the life, satisfy the needs and adjust the relationships of all races and peoples.

A world executive, backed by an international Force, will carry out the decisions arrived at, and apply the laws enacted by, this world legislature, and will safeguard the organic unity of the whole commonwealth.

A world tribunal will adjudicate and deliver its compulsory and final verdict in all and any disputes that may arise between the various elements constituting this universal system.

Starting in , International Peace Congresses were held in Europe every two years, but lost their momentum after due to the renewed outbreak of wars in Europe Crimea and North America American Civil War.

International organizations started forming in the late 19th century — the International Committee of the Red Cross in , the Telegraphic Union in and the Universal Postal Union in The increase in international trade at the turn of the 20th century accelerated the formation of international organizations, and, by the start of World War I in , there were approximately of them.

Support for the idea of establishing international law grew during that period as well. The Institute of International Law was formed in by the Belgian Jurist Gustave Rolin-Jaequemyns , leading to the creation of concrete legal drafts, for example by the Swiss Johaan Bluntschli in The first embryonic world parliament , called the Inter-Parliamentary Union , was organized in by Cremer and Passy, composed of legislators from many countries.

In the Union formally proposed "an international congress which should meet periodically to discuss international questions".

Wells was a strong proponent of the creation of a world state, arguing that such a state would ensure world peace and justice. Wells envisaged that "the great urban region between Chicago and the Atlantic" will unify the English-speaking states, and this larger English-speaking unit, "a New Republic dominating the world", will by the year become the means "by which the final peace of the world may be assured forever".

It will be "a new social Hercules that will strangle the serpents of war and national animosity in his cradle". Such a synthesis "of the peoples now using the English tongue, I regard not only as possible, but as a probable, thing".

The New Republic must ultimately become a "World-State". The League of Nations LoN was an inter-governmental organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in — At its largest size from 28 September to 23 February , it had 58 members.

The League's goals included upholding the Rights of Man , such as the rights of non-whites, women, and soldiers; disarmament , preventing war through collective security , settling disputes between countries through negotiation, diplomacy , and improving global quality of life.

The diplomatic philosophy behind the League represented a fundamental shift in thought from the preceding hundred years.

The League lacked its own armed force and so depended on the Great Powers to enforce its resolutions and economic sanctions and provide an army, when needed.

However, these powers proved reluctant to do so. Lacking many of the key elements necessary to maintain world peace, the League failed to prevent World War II.

Hitler withdrew Germany from the League of Nations once he planned to take over Europe. The rest of the Axis powers soon followed him.

Having failed its primary goal, the League of Nations fell apart. Below these were many agencies. The Assembly was where delegates from all member states conferred.

Each country was allowed three representatives and one vote. According to Karl Marx 's theory of historical materialism , the capitalist epoch depends on the expansion of competing geopolitical markets across the planet, atomizing the global proletariat and thus sustaining economic disparity and rivalry between markets.

Eventually, this will be succeeded by a Socialist epoch in which the working class throughout the world will unite to render national distinctiveness meaningless.

Although world Communism 's long-term goal is a worldwide Communist society that is stateless, which would entail an absence of any government, many anti-Communists especially during the Cold War have considered it naive to think that the world revolution advocated by international Communists would lead to world domination by a single government or an alliance of several, yielding a de facto world government of a totalitarian nature.

The heyday of international Communism was the period from the end of World War I the revolutions of —23 through the s, before the Sino-Soviet split.

Anticipating environmental movements for world unity, like Global Scenario Group , and such concepts as the Planetary phase of civilization and Spaceship Earth , British Geographer Sir Halford Mackinder wrote in Gradually as the arts of life improved, the forests were cleared and the marshes were drained, and the lesser natural regions were fused into greater.

It may perhaps be thought that with the continuance of this process all mankind will be in the end unified … Unless I mistake, it is the message of geography that international cooperation in any future that we need consider must be based on the federal idea.

If our civilization is not to go down in blind internecine conflict, there must be a development of world planning out of regional planning, just as regional planning has come from town planning.

Lionel George Curtis was a British official and author. He originally advocated British Empire Federalism [27] and, later in life, a world state.

He fought in the Second Boer War with the City Imperial Volunteers and served as secretary to Lord Milner a position that had also been held by adventure-novelist John Buchan , during which time he dedicated himself to working for a united self-governing South Africa.

His experience of World War One and the rise of Hitler led him to conceptualize his version of a Federal World Government , which became his life work.

The Nazi Party of Germany envisaged the establishment of a world government under the complete hegemony of the Third Reich.

When this control would be achieved, this power could then set up for itself a world police and assure itself "the necessary living space The lower races will have to restrict themselves accordingly".

This was the idea behind the attempt to establish a Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere and behind the struggle for world domination.

It was intended as the blueprint for the postwar world after World War II , and turned out to be the foundation for many of the international agreements that currently shape the world.

It first started with the United States and Great Britain, and later all the allies would follow the charter. Some goals include access to raw materials, reduction of trade restrictions, and freedom from fear and wants.

The name, The Atlantic Charter, came from a newspaper that coined the title. However, Winston Churchill would use it, and from then on the Atlantic Charter was the official name.

In retaliation, the Axis powers would raise their morale and try to work their way into Great Britain. The Atlantic Charter was a stepping stone into the creation of the United Nations.

President Harry S. Truman commented: "We must make the United Nations continue to work, and to be a going concern, to see that difficulties between nations may be settled just as we settle difficulties between States here in the United States.

When Kansas and Colorado fall out over the waters in the Arkansas River, they don't go to war over it; they go to the Supreme Court of the United States, and the matter is settled in a just and honorable way.

There is not a difficulty in the whole world that cannot be settled in exactly the same way in a world court".

The years between the conclusion of World War II and , when the Korean War started and the Cold War mindset became dominant in international politics, were the "golden age" of the world federalist movement.

Wendell Willkie 's book One World , first published in , sold over 2 million copies. In another, Emery Reves ' book The Anatomy of Peace laid out the arguments for replacing the UN with a federal world government and quickly became the "bible" of world federalists.

The grassroots world federalist movement in the US, led by people such as Grenville Clark , Norman Cousins , Alan Cranston and Robert Hutchins , organized itself into increasingly larger structures, finally forming, in , the United World Federalists later renamed to World Federalist Association, then Citizens for Global Solutions , claiming membership of 47, in Similar movements concurrently formed in many other countries, leading to the formation, at a meeting in Montreux, Switzerland, of a global coalition, now called World Federalist Movement.

By , the movement claimed 56 member groups in 22 countries, with some , members. World War II — resulted in an unprecedented scale of destruction of lives over 60 million dead, most of them civilians , and the use of weapons of mass destruction.

Some of the acts committed against civilians during the war were on such a massive scale of savagery, they came to be widely considered as crimes against humanity itself.

As the war's conclusion drew near, many shocked voices called for the establishment of institutions able to permanently prevent deadly international conflicts.

This led to the founding of the United Nations in , which adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Many, however, felt that the UN, essentially a forum for discussion and coordination between sovereign governments, was insufficiently empowered for the task.

A number of prominent persons, such as Albert Einstein , Winston Churchill , Bertrand Russell and Mahatma Gandhi , called on governments to proceed further by taking gradual steps towards forming an effectual federal world government.

The United Nations main goal is to work on international law, international security, economic development, human rights, social progress, and eventually world peace.

Almost every internationally recognized country is in the U. The United Nations gather regularly in order to solve big problems throughout the world.

The United Nations is also financed by some of the wealthiest nations. The flag shows the Earth from a map that shows all of the populated continents.

The idea of a world parliament was raised at the founding of the League of Nations in the s and again following the end of World War II in , but remained dormant throughout the Cold War.

The Campaign for a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly was formed in by Democracy Without Borders to coordinate pro-UNPA efforts, which as of January has received the support of over 1, Members of Parliament from over countries worldwide, in addition to numerous non-governmental organizations, Nobel and Right Livelihood laureates and heads or former heads of state or government and foreign ministers.

In France, , Garry Davis began an unauthorized speech calling for a world government from the balcony of the UN General Assembly, until he was dragged away by the guards.

Davis renounced his American citizenship and started a Registry of World Citizens. Its first task was to design and begin selling "World Passports", which the organisation argues is legitimatised by on Article 13, Section 2 of the UDHR.

World Passports have allegedly been accepted sporadically by some countries, but no immigration authority has a de facto or de jure policy of acceptance with regards to the document.

The latest edition of the World Passport, which has been on sale since January , is an MRD machine readable document with an alphanumeric code bar enabling computer input plus an embedded "ghost" photo for security, printing overcovered with a plastic film.

Two covers are available: "World Passport", and "World Government Passport" for registered World Citizens , "passport" is in 7 languages on both covers.

Each page within the document is numbered and each page has the World Citizen logo in the background. There are two pages for affiliation with companies, organizations, and firms.

There are nineteen visa pages in the document. On the back cover there are spaces for personal information such as a person's home address.

Legal anthropologist E. Adamson Hoebel concluded his treatise on broadening the legal realist tradition to include non-Western nations: [35] "Whatever the idealist may desire, force and the threat of force are the ultimate power in the determination of international behavior, as in the law within the nation or tribe.

But until force and the threat of force in international relations are brought under social control by the world community, by and for the world society, they remain the instruments of social anarchy and not the sanctions of world law.

The creation in clear-cut terms of the corpus of world law cries for the doing. If world law, however, is to be realized at all, there will have to be minimum of general agreement as to the nature of the physical and ideational world and the relation of men in society to it.

An important and valuable next step will be found in deep-cutting analysis of the major law systems of the contemporary world in order to lay bare their basic postulates — postulates that are too generally hidden; postulates felt, perhaps, by those who live by them, but so much taken for granted that they are rarely expressed or exposed for examination.

When this is done — and it will take the efforts of many keen intellects steeped in the law of at least a dozen lands and also aware of the social nexus of the law — then mankind will be able to see clearly for the first time and clearly where the common consensus of the great living social and law systems lies.

Here will be found the common postulates and values upon which the world community can build. At the same time the truly basic points of conflict that will have to be worked upon for resolution will be revealed.

Law is inherently purposive". While enthusiasm for multinational federalism in Europe incrementally led, over the following decades, to the formation of the European Union , the onset of the Cold War — eliminated the prospects of any progress towards federation with a more global scope.

The movement quickly shrank in size to a much smaller core of activists, and the world government idea all but disappeared from wide public discourse.

Following the end of the Cold War in , interest in a federal world government and, more generally, in the global protection of human rights, was renewed.

The most visible achievement of the world federalism movement during the s is the Rome Statute of , which led to the establishment of the International Criminal Court in In Europe , progress towards forming a federal union of European states gained much momentum, starting in as a trade deal between the German and French people led, in , to the Maastricht Treaty that established the name and enlarged the agreement that the European Union EU is based upon.

The EU expanded , , , to encompass, in , over half a billion people in 28 member states. Wendt argues that a struggle among sovereign individuals results in the formation of a collective identity and eventually a state.

The same forces are present within the international system and could possibly, and potentially inevitably lead to the development of a world state through this 5 stage process.

When the world state would emerge, the traditional expression of states would become localized expressions of the world state. This process occurs within the default state of anarchy present in the world system.

Kant conceptualized the state as sovereign individuals formed out of conflict. Wendt argues that new methods of communication and coordination can overcome these challenges.

As of [update] , there is no functioning global international military , executive , legislature , judiciary , or constitution with jurisdiction over the entire planet.

The world is divided geographically and demographically into mutually exclusive territories and political structures called states which are independent and sovereign in most cases.

There are numerous bodies, institutions, unions, coalitions, agreements and contracts between these units of authority , but, except in cases where a nation is under military occupation by another, all such arrangements depend on the continued consent of the participant nations.

In this way a country's cooperation in international affairs is voluntary, but non-cooperation still has diplomatic consequences. In addition to the formal, or semi-formal, international organizations and laws mentioned above, many other mechanisms act to regulate human activities across national borders.

In particular, international trade in goods, services and currencies the " global market " has a tremendous impact on the lives of people in almost all parts of the world, creating deep interdependency amongst nations see globalization.

Trans-national or multi-national corporations , some with resources exceeding those available to most governments, govern activities of people on a global scale.

The rapid increase in the volume of trans-border digital communications and mass-media distribution e. The only union generally recognized as having achieved the status of a supranational union is the European Union.

There are a number of other regional organizations that, while not supranational unions, have adopted or intend to adopt policies that may lead to a similar sort of integration in some respects.

The EU is the only supranational politico-economic union and not just an international organization. Although the EU is still evolving, it already has many attributes of a federal government such as open internal borders, a directly elected parliament, a court system, an official currency Euro , and a centralized economic policy.

A treaty change would be needed to allow for enlargement of the Union beyond the European continent. A multitude of regional associations , aggregating most nations of the world, are at different stages of development towards a growing extent of economic, and sometimes political, integration.

The European Union consists of twenty-seven European states. It has developed a "single market" which allows people of different countries to travel from state to state without the need for customs declarations at border security.

This also includes the same policies when it comes to trading. Where the Euro is in place, it allows easy access for the free circulation of trade goods.

Tariffs are also the same for each country allowing no unfair practices within the union. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.

CARICOM's main purpose is to promote economic integration and cooperation among its members, to ensure that the benefits of integration are equitably shared and to coordinate foreign policy.

Its major activities involve coordinating economic policies and development planning; devising and instituting special projects for the less-developed countries within its jurisdiction; operating as a regional single market for many of its members CARICOM Single Market and Economy CSME ; and handling regional trade disputes.

Part of the revised treaty among member states includes the establishment and implementation of the Caribbean Court of Justice CCJ.

Eventually, the AU aims to have a single currency and a single integrated defence force, as well as other institutions of state, including a cabinet for the AU Head of State.

Its claimed aims include the acceleration of economic growth, social progress, cultural development among its members, and the promotion of regional peace.

Except for Uzbekistan, these countries had been members of the Shanghai Five ; after the inclusion of Uzbekistan in , the members renamed the organization.

The Commonwealth of Independent States is comparable to a confederation similar to the original European Community. Although the CIS has few supranational powers, it is more than a purely symbolic organization, possessing coordinating powers in the realm of trade, finance, lawmaking, and security.

It has also promoted cooperation on democratization and cross-border crime prevention. Yemen joined as a member on May 5, It has also been proposed to reform the Arab League into an Arab Union.

The Arab League currently is the most important organization in the region. It incorporates all the independent states of South America. In terms of population, its sphere of influence is the largest of any regional organization : almost 1.

In April , at the Association's 14th summit, Afghanistan became its eighth member.

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