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While distinct regional varieties and rural dialects still exist, the written language is uniform and standardized. The standard word order is, as in most Germanic languages , V2 , which means that the finite verb V appears in the second position 2 of a declarative main clause.

Swedish morphology is similar to English; that is, words have comparatively few inflections. Swedish has two genders [3] and is generally seen to have two grammatical cases — nominative and genitive except for pronouns that, as in English, also are inflected in the object form — although it is debated if the genitive in Swedish should be seen as a genitive case or just the nominative plus the so-called genitive s , then seen as a clitic.

Swedish has two grammatical numbers — plural and singular. Adjectives have discrete comparative and superlative forms and are also inflected according to gender, number and definiteness.

The definiteness of nouns is marked primarily through suffixes endings , complemented with separate definite and indefinite articles.

The prosody features both stress and in most dialects tonal qualities. The language has a comparatively large vowel inventory.

Swedish is also notable for the voiceless dorso-palatal velar fricative , a highly variable consonant phoneme. Swedish has also had historic use in Estonia , although the current status of the Estonian Swedish speakers is almost extinct.

Instead, it is used in the Swedish diaspora , most notably in Oslo , Norway , with more than 50, resident Swedes.

Swedish is an Indo-European language belonging to the North Germanic branch of the Germanic languages. In the established classification, it belongs to the East Scandinavian languages , together with Danish , separating it from the West Scandinavian languages , consisting of Faroese , Icelandic , and Norwegian.

However, more recent analyses divide the North Germanic languages into two groups: Insular Scandinavian Faroese and Icelandic , and Continental Scandinavian Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish , based on mutual intelligibility due to heavy influence of East Scandinavian particularly Danish on Norwegian during the last millennium and divergence from both Faroese and Icelandic.

By many general criteria of mutual intelligibility, the Continental Scandinavian languages could very well be considered dialects of a common Scandinavian language.

However, because of several hundred years of sometimes quite intense rivalry between Denmark and Sweden, including a long series of wars from the 16th to 18th centuries, and the nationalist ideas that emerged during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the languages have separate orthographies , dictionaries, grammars, and regulatory bodies.

Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish are thus from a linguistic perspective more accurately described as a dialect continuum of Scandinavian North Germanic , and some of the dialects, such as those on the border between Norway and Sweden, especially parts of Bohuslän , Dalsland , western Värmland , western Dalarna , Härjedalen , Jämtland , and Scania , could be described as intermediate dialects of the national standard languages.

Swedish pronunciations also vary greatly from one region to another, a legacy of the vast geographic distances and historical isolation.

Even so, the vocabulary is standardized to a level that make dialects within Sweden virtually fully mutually intelligible.

The dialects are described as "runic" because the main body of text appears in the runic alphabet. Unlike Proto-Norse, which was written with the Elder Futhark alphabet, Old Norse was written with the Younger Futhark alphabet, which had only 16 letters.

From onwards, the dialects in Denmark began to diverge from those of Sweden. The innovations spread unevenly from Denmark which created a series of minor dialectal boundaries, or isoglosses , ranging from Zealand in the south to Norrland , Österbotten and northwestern Finland in the north.

This is reflected in runic inscriptions where the older read stain and the later stin. By the end of the period, these innovations had affected most of the Runic Swedish-speaking area as well, with the exception of the dialects spoken north and east of Mälardalen where the diphthongs still exist in remote areas.

Old Swedish Swedish: fornsvenska is the term used for the medieval Swedish language. The start date is usually set to since this is the year that Västgötalagen "the Västgöta Law" is believed to have been compiled for the first time.

Old Swedish is divided into äldre fornsvenska — and yngre fornsvenska — , "older" and "younger" Old Swedish. With the rise of Hanseatic power in the late 13th and early 14th century, Middle Low German became very influential.

The Hanseatic league provided Swedish commerce and administration with a large number of Low German -speaking immigrants.

Many became quite influential members of Swedish medieval society, and brought terms from their native languages into the vocabulary.

Besides a great number of loanwords for such areas as warfare, trade and administration, general grammatical suffixes and even conjunctions were imported.

The League also brought a certain measure of influence from Danish at the time much more similar than today's language. Early Old Swedish was markedly different from the modern language in that it had a more complex case structure and also retained the original Germanic three- gender system.

Nouns , adjectives , pronouns and certain numerals were inflected in four cases; besides the extant nominative , there were also the genitive later possessive , dative and accusative.

The gender system resembled that of modern German , having masculine, feminine and neuter genders. The masculine and feminine genders were later merged into a common gender with the definite suffix -en and the definite article den , in contrast with the neuter gender equivalents -et and det.

The verb system was also more complex: it included subjunctive and imperative moods and verbs were conjugated according to person as well as number.

By the 16th century, the case and gender systems of the colloquial spoken language and the profane literature had been largely reduced to the two cases and two genders of modern Swedish.

The combination "ao" was similarly rendered a o , and "oe" became o e. Modern Swedish Swedish: nysvenska begins with the advent of the printing press and the European Reformation.

After assuming power, the new monarch Gustav Vasa ordered a Swedish translation of the Bible. The New Testament was published in , followed by a full Bible translation in , usually referred to as the Gustav Vasa Bible , a translation deemed so successful and influential that, with revisions incorporated in successive editions, it remained the most common Bible translation until The Vasa Bible is often considered to be a reasonable compromise between old and new; while not adhering to the colloquial spoken language of its day, it was not overly conservative in its use of archaic forms.

All three translators came from central Sweden which is generally seen as adding specific Central Swedish features to the new Bible. Though it might seem as if the Bible translation set a very powerful precedent for orthographic standards, spelling actually became more inconsistent during the remainder of the century.

It was not until the 17th century that spelling began to be discussed, around the time when the first grammars were written. It depended on the authors and their background.

Those influenced by German capitalized all nouns, while others capitalized more sparsely. It is also not always apparent which letters are capitalized owing to the Gothic or blackletter typeface which was used to print the Bible.

This typeface was in use until the midth century, when it was gradually replaced with a Latin typeface often antiqua. The period that includes Swedish as it is spoken today is termed nusvenska lit.

It saw a democratization of the language with a less formal written form that approached the spoken one. The growth of a public school system also led to the evolution of so-called boksvenska literally, "book Swedish" , especially among the working classes, where spelling to some extent influenced pronunciation, particularly in official contexts.

With the industrialization and urbanization of Sweden well under way by the last decades of the 19th century, a new breed of authors made their mark on Swedish literature.

Many scholars, politicians and other public figures had a great influence on the emerging national language, among them prolific authors like the poet Gustaf Fröding , Nobel laureate Selma Lagerlöf , and radical writer and playwright August Strindberg.

It was during the 20th century that a common, standardized national language became available to all Swedes. The orthography finally stabilized and became almost completely uniform, with some minor deviations, by the time of the spelling reform of The plural verb forms appeared decreasingly in formal writing into the s, when their use was removed from all official recommendations.

A very significant change in Swedish occurred in the late s, with the so-called du-reformen , "the you-reform". Previously, the proper way to address people of the same or higher social status had been by title and surname.

The use of herr "Mr" or "Sir" , fru "Mrs" or "Ma'am" or fröken "Miss" was considered the only acceptable way to begin conversation with strangers of unknown occupation, academic title or military rank.

The fact that the listener should preferably be referred to in the third person tended to further complicate spoken communication between members of society.

In the early 20th century, an unsuccessful attempt was made to replace the insistence on titles with ni —the standard second person plural pronoun —analogous to the French vous.

T-V distinction. Ni wound up being used as a slightly less familiar form of du , the singular second person pronoun, used to address people of lower social status.

With the liberalization and radicalization of Swedish society in the s and s, these class distinctions became less important, and du became the standard, even in formal and official contexts.

Though the reform was not an act of any centralized political decree, but rather the result of sweeping change in social attitudes, it was completed in just a few years, from the late s to early s.

Swedish is the sole official national language of Sweden , and one of two in Finland alongside Finnish.

As of , it was the first or sole native language of 7. According to a rough estimation, as of there were up to , Swedish-speakers living outside Sweden and Finland.

There is considerable migration between the Nordic countries , but owing to the similarity between the cultures and languages with the exception of Finnish , expatriates generally assimilate quickly and do not stand out as a group.

According to the United States Census , some 67, people over the age of five were reported as Swedish speakers, though without any information on the degree of language proficiency.

Swedish is the official main language of Sweden. In Sweden, it has long been used in local and state government, and most of the educational system, but remained only a de facto primary language with no official status in law until A bill was proposed in that would have made Swedish an official language, but failed to pass by the narrowest possible margin — due to a pairing-off failure.

It was subsequently enacted by the Riksdag , and entered into effect on 1 July In Finland as a whole, Swedish is one of the two "national" languages, with the same official status as Finnish spoken by the majority at the state level and an official language in some municipalities.

Swedish is one of the official languages of the European Union , and one of the working languages of the Nordic Council. Under the Nordic Language Convention , citizens of the Nordic countries speaking Swedish have the opportunity to use their native language when interacting with official bodies in other Nordic countries without being liable for interpretation or translation costs.

However, many organizations and agencies require the use of the council's publication Svenska skrivregler in official contexts, with it otherwise being regarded as a de facto orthographic standard.

Among the many organizations that make up the Swedish Language Council, the Swedish Academy established is arguably the most influential. Its primary instruments are the glossary Svenska Akademiens ordlista SAOL , currently in its 14th edition and the dictionary Svenska Akademiens Ordbok , in addition to various books on grammar, spelling and manuals of style.

Although the dictionaries have a prescriptive element, they mainly describe current usage. In Finland, a special branch of the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland has official status as the regulatory body for Swedish in Finland.

Among its highest priorities is to maintain intelligibility with the language spoken in Sweden. It has published Finlandssvensk ordbok , a dictionary about the differences between Swedish in Finland and Sweden.

From the 13th to 20th century, there were Swedish-speaking communities in Estonia , particularly on the islands e.

The Swedish-speaking minority was represented in parliament , and entitled to use their native language in parliamentary debates. After the loss of Estonia to the Russian Empire in the early 18th century, around 1, Estonian Swedish speakers were forced to march to southern Ukraine , where they founded a village, Gammalsvenskby "Old Swedish Village".

A few elderly people in the village still speak Swedish and observe the holidays of the Swedish calendar, although the dialect is most likely facing extinction.

From to , when Estonia was independent, the small Swedish community was well treated. Municipalities with a Swedish majority, mainly found along the coast, used Swedish as the administrative language and Swedish-Estonian culture saw an upswing.

However, most Swedish-speaking people fled to Sweden before the end of World War II , that is, before the invasion of Estonia by the Soviet army in Only a handful of speakers remain.

Swedish dialects have either 17 or 18 vowel phonemes , 9 long and 9 short. As in the other Germanic languages, including English, most long vowels are phonetically paired with one of the short vowels, and the pairs are such that the two vowels are of similar quality , but with the short vowel being slightly lower and slightly centralized.

In contrast to e. Danish, which has only tense vowels, the short vowels are slightly more lax, but the tense vs. Swedish is a stress-timed language, where the time intervals between stressed syllables are equal.

However, when casually spoken, it tends to be syllable-timed. Prosody is often one of the most noticeable differences between dialects. Swedish nouns and adjectives are declined in genders as well as number.

Nouns are of common gender en form or neuter gender ett form. For example, the word fisk "fish" is a noun of common gender en fisk and can have the following forms:.

The definite singular form of a noun is created by adding a suffix -en , -n , -et or -t , depending on its gender and if the noun ends in a vowel or not.

The definite articles den , det , and de are used for variations to the definitiveness of a noun. For example, den där fisken means "that fish" and refers to a specific fish; den fisken is less definite and means "that fish" in a more abstract sense, such as that set of fish; while fisken means "the fish".

In certain cases, the definite form indicates possession, e. Adjectives are inflected in two declensions — indefinite and definite — and they must match the noun they modify in gender and number.

The indefinite neuter and plural forms of an adjective are usually created by adding a suffix -t or -a to the common form of the adjective, e.

The definite form of an adjective is identical to the indefinite plural form, e. Swedish pronouns are similar to those of English.

Besides the two natural genders han and hon "he" and "she" , there are also the two grammatical genders den and det , usually termed common and neuter.

In recent years, a gender-neutral pronoun hen has been introduced, particularly in literary Swedish. Unlike the nouns, pronouns have an additional object form, derived from the old dative form.

Hon , for example, has the following nominative, possessive, and object forms: [54]. Swedish also uses third-person possessive reflexive pronouns that refer to the subject in a clause, a trait which is restricted to North Germanic languages:.

Swedish used to have a genitive that was placed at the end of the head of a noun phrase. In modern Swedish, it has become an enclitic -s , which attaches to the end of the noun phrase, rather than the noun itself.

In formal written language, it used to be considered correct to place the genitive -s after the head of the noun phrase hästen , though this is today considered dated, and different grammatical constructions are often used.

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The innovations spread unevenly from Denmark which created a series of minor dialectal boundaries, or isoglosses , ranging from Zealand in the south to Norrland , Österbotten and northwestern Finland in the north.

This is reflected in runic inscriptions where the older read stain and the later stin. By the end of the period, these innovations had affected most of the Runic Swedish-speaking area as well, with the exception of the dialects spoken north and east of Mälardalen where the diphthongs still exist in remote areas.

Old Swedish Swedish: fornsvenska is the term used for the medieval Swedish language. The start date is usually set to since this is the year that Västgötalagen "the Västgöta Law" is believed to have been compiled for the first time.

Old Swedish is divided into äldre fornsvenska — and yngre fornsvenska — , "older" and "younger" Old Swedish. With the rise of Hanseatic power in the late 13th and early 14th century, Middle Low German became very influential.

The Hanseatic league provided Swedish commerce and administration with a large number of Low German -speaking immigrants. Many became quite influential members of Swedish medieval society, and brought terms from their native languages into the vocabulary.

Besides a great number of loanwords for such areas as warfare, trade and administration, general grammatical suffixes and even conjunctions were imported.

The League also brought a certain measure of influence from Danish at the time much more similar than today's language.

Early Old Swedish was markedly different from the modern language in that it had a more complex case structure and also retained the original Germanic three- gender system.

Nouns , adjectives , pronouns and certain numerals were inflected in four cases; besides the extant nominative , there were also the genitive later possessive , dative and accusative.

The gender system resembled that of modern German , having masculine, feminine and neuter genders. The masculine and feminine genders were later merged into a common gender with the definite suffix -en and the definite article den , in contrast with the neuter gender equivalents -et and det.

The verb system was also more complex: it included subjunctive and imperative moods and verbs were conjugated according to person as well as number.

By the 16th century, the case and gender systems of the colloquial spoken language and the profane literature had been largely reduced to the two cases and two genders of modern Swedish.

The combination "ao" was similarly rendered a o , and "oe" became o e. Modern Swedish Swedish: nysvenska begins with the advent of the printing press and the European Reformation.

After assuming power, the new monarch Gustav Vasa ordered a Swedish translation of the Bible. The New Testament was published in , followed by a full Bible translation in , usually referred to as the Gustav Vasa Bible , a translation deemed so successful and influential that, with revisions incorporated in successive editions, it remained the most common Bible translation until The Vasa Bible is often considered to be a reasonable compromise between old and new; while not adhering to the colloquial spoken language of its day, it was not overly conservative in its use of archaic forms.

All three translators came from central Sweden which is generally seen as adding specific Central Swedish features to the new Bible.

Though it might seem as if the Bible translation set a very powerful precedent for orthographic standards, spelling actually became more inconsistent during the remainder of the century.

It was not until the 17th century that spelling began to be discussed, around the time when the first grammars were written.

It depended on the authors and their background. Those influenced by German capitalized all nouns, while others capitalized more sparsely.

It is also not always apparent which letters are capitalized owing to the Gothic or blackletter typeface which was used to print the Bible.

This typeface was in use until the midth century, when it was gradually replaced with a Latin typeface often antiqua. The period that includes Swedish as it is spoken today is termed nusvenska lit.

It saw a democratization of the language with a less formal written form that approached the spoken one. The growth of a public school system also led to the evolution of so-called boksvenska literally, "book Swedish" , especially among the working classes, where spelling to some extent influenced pronunciation, particularly in official contexts.

With the industrialization and urbanization of Sweden well under way by the last decades of the 19th century, a new breed of authors made their mark on Swedish literature.

Many scholars, politicians and other public figures had a great influence on the emerging national language, among them prolific authors like the poet Gustaf Fröding , Nobel laureate Selma Lagerlöf , and radical writer and playwright August Strindberg.

It was during the 20th century that a common, standardized national language became available to all Swedes.

The orthography finally stabilized and became almost completely uniform, with some minor deviations, by the time of the spelling reform of The plural verb forms appeared decreasingly in formal writing into the s, when their use was removed from all official recommendations.

A very significant change in Swedish occurred in the late s, with the so-called du-reformen , "the you-reform". Previously, the proper way to address people of the same or higher social status had been by title and surname.

The use of herr "Mr" or "Sir" , fru "Mrs" or "Ma'am" or fröken "Miss" was considered the only acceptable way to begin conversation with strangers of unknown occupation, academic title or military rank.

The fact that the listener should preferably be referred to in the third person tended to further complicate spoken communication between members of society.

In the early 20th century, an unsuccessful attempt was made to replace the insistence on titles with ni —the standard second person plural pronoun —analogous to the French vous.

T-V distinction. Ni wound up being used as a slightly less familiar form of du , the singular second person pronoun, used to address people of lower social status.

With the liberalization and radicalization of Swedish society in the s and s, these class distinctions became less important, and du became the standard, even in formal and official contexts.

Though the reform was not an act of any centralized political decree, but rather the result of sweeping change in social attitudes, it was completed in just a few years, from the late s to early s.

Swedish is the sole official national language of Sweden , and one of two in Finland alongside Finnish.

As of , it was the first or sole native language of 7. According to a rough estimation, as of there were up to , Swedish-speakers living outside Sweden and Finland.

There is considerable migration between the Nordic countries , but owing to the similarity between the cultures and languages with the exception of Finnish , expatriates generally assimilate quickly and do not stand out as a group.

According to the United States Census , some 67, people over the age of five were reported as Swedish speakers, though without any information on the degree of language proficiency.

Swedish is the official main language of Sweden. In Sweden, it has long been used in local and state government, and most of the educational system, but remained only a de facto primary language with no official status in law until A bill was proposed in that would have made Swedish an official language, but failed to pass by the narrowest possible margin — due to a pairing-off failure.

It was subsequently enacted by the Riksdag , and entered into effect on 1 July In Finland as a whole, Swedish is one of the two "national" languages, with the same official status as Finnish spoken by the majority at the state level and an official language in some municipalities.

Swedish is one of the official languages of the European Union , and one of the working languages of the Nordic Council.

Under the Nordic Language Convention , citizens of the Nordic countries speaking Swedish have the opportunity to use their native language when interacting with official bodies in other Nordic countries without being liable for interpretation or translation costs.

However, many organizations and agencies require the use of the council's publication Svenska skrivregler in official contexts, with it otherwise being regarded as a de facto orthographic standard.

Among the many organizations that make up the Swedish Language Council, the Swedish Academy established is arguably the most influential.

Its primary instruments are the glossary Svenska Akademiens ordlista SAOL , currently in its 14th edition and the dictionary Svenska Akademiens Ordbok , in addition to various books on grammar, spelling and manuals of style.

Although the dictionaries have a prescriptive element, they mainly describe current usage. In Finland, a special branch of the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland has official status as the regulatory body for Swedish in Finland.

Among its highest priorities is to maintain intelligibility with the language spoken in Sweden. It has published Finlandssvensk ordbok , a dictionary about the differences between Swedish in Finland and Sweden.

From the 13th to 20th century, there were Swedish-speaking communities in Estonia , particularly on the islands e.

The Swedish-speaking minority was represented in parliament , and entitled to use their native language in parliamentary debates. After the loss of Estonia to the Russian Empire in the early 18th century, around 1, Estonian Swedish speakers were forced to march to southern Ukraine , where they founded a village, Gammalsvenskby "Old Swedish Village".

A few elderly people in the village still speak Swedish and observe the holidays of the Swedish calendar, although the dialect is most likely facing extinction.

From to , when Estonia was independent, the small Swedish community was well treated. Municipalities with a Swedish majority, mainly found along the coast, used Swedish as the administrative language and Swedish-Estonian culture saw an upswing.

However, most Swedish-speaking people fled to Sweden before the end of World War II , that is, before the invasion of Estonia by the Soviet army in Only a handful of speakers remain.

Swedish dialects have either 17 or 18 vowel phonemes , 9 long and 9 short. As in the other Germanic languages, including English, most long vowels are phonetically paired with one of the short vowels, and the pairs are such that the two vowels are of similar quality , but with the short vowel being slightly lower and slightly centralized.

In contrast to e. Danish, which has only tense vowels, the short vowels are slightly more lax, but the tense vs.

Swedish is a stress-timed language, where the time intervals between stressed syllables are equal. However, when casually spoken, it tends to be syllable-timed.

Prosody is often one of the most noticeable differences between dialects. Swedish nouns and adjectives are declined in genders as well as number.

Nouns are of common gender en form or neuter gender ett form. For example, the word fisk "fish" is a noun of common gender en fisk and can have the following forms:.

The definite singular form of a noun is created by adding a suffix -en , -n , -et or -t , depending on its gender and if the noun ends in a vowel or not.

The definite articles den , det , and de are used for variations to the definitiveness of a noun. For example, den där fisken means "that fish" and refers to a specific fish; den fisken is less definite and means "that fish" in a more abstract sense, such as that set of fish; while fisken means "the fish".

In certain cases, the definite form indicates possession, e. Adjectives are inflected in two declensions — indefinite and definite — and they must match the noun they modify in gender and number.

The indefinite neuter and plural forms of an adjective are usually created by adding a suffix -t or -a to the common form of the adjective, e.

The definite form of an adjective is identical to the indefinite plural form, e. Swedish pronouns are similar to those of English.

Besides the two natural genders han and hon "he" and "she" , there are also the two grammatical genders den and det , usually termed common and neuter.

In recent years, a gender-neutral pronoun hen has been introduced, particularly in literary Swedish. Unlike the nouns, pronouns have an additional object form, derived from the old dative form.

Hon , for example, has the following nominative, possessive, and object forms: [54]. Swedish also uses third-person possessive reflexive pronouns that refer to the subject in a clause, a trait which is restricted to North Germanic languages:.

Swedish used to have a genitive that was placed at the end of the head of a noun phrase. In modern Swedish, it has become an enclitic -s , which attaches to the end of the noun phrase, rather than the noun itself.

In formal written language, it used to be considered correct to place the genitive -s after the head of the noun phrase hästen , though this is today considered dated, and different grammatical constructions are often used.

Verbs are conjugated according to tense. One group of verbs the ones ending in -er in present tense has a special imperative form generally the verb stem , but with most verbs the imperative is identical to the infinitive form.

Perfect and present participles as adjectival verbs are very common: [54]. In contrast to English and many other languages, Swedish does not use the perfect participle to form the present perfect and past perfect.

Rather, the auxiliary verb har "have" , hade "had" is followed by a special form, called the supine , used solely for this purpose although often identical to the neuter form of the perfect participle : [54].

When building the compound passive voice using the verb att bli , the past participle is used:.

There exists also an inflected passive voice formed by adding -s , replacing the final r in the present tense:. In a subordinate clause , the auxiliary har is optional and often omitted, particularly in written Swedish.

Where other languages may use grammatical cases , Swedish uses numerous prepositions , similar to those found in English. As in modern German , prepositions formerly determined case in Swedish, but this feature can only be found in certain idiomatic expressions like till fots "on foot", genitive.

As Swedish is a Germanic language, the syntax shows similarities to both English and German. Like English, Swedish has a subject—verb—object basic word order, but like German it utilizes verb-second word order in main clauses, for instance after adverbs and adverbial phrases, and dependent clauses.

Adverbial phrases denoting time are usually placed at the beginning of a main clause that is at the head of a sentence. Prepositional phrases are placed in a place—manner—time order, as in English but not German.

Adjectives precede the noun they modify. The vocabulary of Swedish is mainly Germanic, either through common Germanic heritage or through loans from German, Middle Low German, and to some extent, English.

A significant part of the religious and scientific vocabulary is of Latin or Greek origin, often borrowed from French and, lately, English.

Some 1— words are also borrowed from Scandoromani or Romani , often as slang varieties; a commonly used word from Romani is tjej "girl".

A large number of French words were imported into Sweden around the 18th century. These words have been transcribed to the Swedish spelling system and are therefore pronounced recognizably to a French-speaker.

Most of them are distinguished by a "French accent", characterized by emphasis on the last syllable.

Cross-borrowing from other Germanic languages has also been common, at first from Middle Low German, the lingua franca of the Hanseatic league and later from Standard German.

Some compounds are translations of the elements calques of German original compounds into Swedish, like bomull from German Baumwolle "cotton"; literally, tree-wool.

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